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Economic and Cultural Residential Sorting of Auckland’s Population 1991-2013: An Entropy Approach


  • Mohana Mondal

    (University of Waikato)

  • Michael P. Cameron

    (University of Waikato)

  • Jacques Poot

    (University of Waikato)


Auckland, the largest city of New Zealand, is one of the most diverse cities in the world, with more than 40 percent of its population born abroad, more than 200 ethnicities represented and 160 languages spoken. In this paper, we measure residential sorting of individuals in Auckland by their cultural (ethnicity) and economic (age, income, education, occupation) characteristics for the years 1991-2013. We use entropy-based measures of residential sorting as our preferred measure, and find that individuals exhibit the greatest residential sorting by ethnicity, compared with sorting by economic characteristics. We also observe that ethnic sorting declined between 1991 and 2013, for broad ethnic groups, but that sorting within the broad ethnic groups has increased. At the broad occupational groups level, sorting has also declined between 1991 and 2013, but the contribution to sorting of within-broad-group occupations has increased. We also observe that the semi-rural fringes of the city are less diverse than the central urban area.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohana Mondal & Michael P. Cameron & Jacques Poot, 2019. "Economic and Cultural Residential Sorting of Auckland’s Population 1991-2013: An Entropy Approach," Working Papers in Economics 19/03, University of Waikato.
  • Handle: RePEc:wai:econwp:19/03

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Nancy A. Denton & Douglas S. Massey, "undated". "Residential Segregation of Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians by Socioeconomic Status and Generation," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 88-2, Chicago - Population Research Center.
    2. Dave Maré & Jason Timmins, 2003. "Moving to Jobs?," Labor and Demography 0309003, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Reynolds Farley, 1977. "Residential segregation in urbanized areas of the United States in 1970: An analysis of social class and racial differences," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 14(4), pages 497-518, November.
    4. Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot, 2015. "Cultural Diversity - A Matter of Measurement," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1502, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    5. repec:iza:izawol:journl:y:2014:p:46 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Paul Spoonley, 2014. "Superdiversity, social cohesion, and economic benefits," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 1-46, May.
    7. Denton, N.A. & Massey, D.S., 1988. "Residential Segregation Of Blacks, Hispanics, And Asians By Socioeconomic Status And Generation," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 88-2, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
    8. Mohana Mondal & Michael P. Cameron & Jacques Poot, 2018. "Group-Size Bias in the Measurement of Residential Sorting," Working Papers in Economics 18/09, University of Waikato.
    9. Peter Nijkamp & Jacques Poot & Jessie Bakens (ed.), 2015. "The Economics of Cultural Diversity," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15883, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mohana Mondal & Michael P. Cameron & Jacques Poot, 2020. "Determinants of Ethnic Identity among Adolescents: Evidence from New Zealand," Working Papers in Economics 20/05, University of Waikato.
    2. David C. Maré & Jacques Poot, 2019. "Commuting to diversity," Working Papers 19_20, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.

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    More about this item


    residential sorting; cultural sorting; economic sorting; segregation; entropy measures; cultural diversity; economic diversity;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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