Past and Future of Human Capital in Southeast Asia: From 1970 to 2030
This paper examines levels of educational attainment in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam for the period 1970-2030 through the reconstruction and projection of levels of educational attainment. While the study of the past shows that the determination to invest in education has been strong in the six countries, the investments were implemented at different pace and intensity, the projections show the legacy of past investments. In Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand, there will be tangible increases in the proportion of the working age population with a tertiary education. The Philippines will have a dichotomous society where large proportions will either have a tertiary education or only a primary education. In Indonesia, the bulk of the working age population will shift from primary in 2000 to secondary by 2030. The projection horizon and the trend type of scenario do not allow Vietnam to catch up with the other countries.
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