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Past and Future of Human Capital in Southeast Asia: From 1970 to 2030


  • Anne Goujon
  • Samir K.C.


This paper examines levels of educational attainment in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam for the period 1970-2030 through the reconstruction and projection of levels of educational attainment. While the study of the past shows that the determination to invest in education has been strong in the six countries, the investments were implemented at different pace and intensity, the projections show the legacy of past investments. In Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand, there will be tangible increases in the proportion of the working age population with a tertiary education. The Philippines will have a dichotomous society where large proportions will either have a tertiary education or only a primary education. In Indonesia, the bulk of the working age population will shift from primary in 2000 to secondary by 2030. The projection horizon and the trend type of scenario do not allow Vietnam to catch up with the other countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Anne Goujon & Samir K.C., 2009. "Past and Future of Human Capital in Southeast Asia: From 1970 to 2030," VID Working Papers 0607, Vienna Institute of Demography (VID) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna.
  • Handle: RePEc:vid:wpaper:0607

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jeong, Hyeok, 2008. "Assessment Of Relationship Between Growth And Inequality: Micro Evidence From Thailand," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(S2), pages 155-197, September.
    2. Pundarik Mukhopadhaya, 2001. "Changes In Social Welfare In Singapore - 1982-1999," Departmental Working Papers wp0120, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
    3. Geoffrey McNicoll, 2006. "Policy Lessons of the East Asian Demographic Transition," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 32(1), pages 1-25.
    4. Mukhopadhaya, Pundarik, 2001. "Changing labor-force gender composition and male-female income diversity in Singapore," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 547-568.
    5. Lanjouw, Peter & Pradhan, Menno & Saadah, Fadia & Sayed, Haneen & Sparrow, Robert, 2001. "Poverty, education, and health in Indonesia : who benefits from public spending?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2739, The World Bank.
    6. Douangngeune, Bounlouane & Hayami, Yujiro & Godo, Yoshihisa, 2005. "Education and natural resources in economic development: Thailand compared with Japan and Korea," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 179-204, April.
    7. Anne Booth, 2000. "Poverty and Inequality in The Soeharto Era: An Assessment," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 73-104.
    8. Thomas, Duncan & Beegle, Kathleen & Frankenberg, Elizabeth & Sikoki, Bondan & Strauss, John & Teruel, Graciela, 2004. "Education in a crisis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 53-85, June.
    9. Glewwe, P. & Patrinos, H.A., 1998. "The Role of Private Sector in Education in Vietnam. Evidence from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey," Papers 132, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
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    Southeast Asia; education; human capital;

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