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Earnings Differential Between Male-Female In Indonesia: Evidence From Sakernas Data


  • Viktor Pirmana

    () (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)


This Research aims to analyze the earnings inequality in Indonesia and to know whether the earnings inequality can be explained by individual characteristic factors such as education and experience; location both urban-rural and province where individual reside and work; and based on socio-demography-economic characteristic. Furthermore, this research tries to know how big those factors contribute to the existing inequality, before and after crisis. Using data from SAKERNAS 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2004, the valid observation is about 145660 individual. Result of analysis clearly indicate that there are significant gender inequalities in earnings in Indonesia, based on education and experience; urban-rural location and province where individual reside and work and based on socio-demography-economic characteristic. The profile of earnings inequality by gender seems to be an “inverted U” fashion, with the male-female earnings gap narrowing as educational attainment went up, and reached a plateau at the “post-secondary level” and then tapered off. The analysis also suggests that the industrial affiliation of female workers matter.The result of estimating Mincerian earnings equation shows that such factor as human capital (years of schooling and experience); socio-demography-economic characteristic (being household’s head, gender, marriage status, work sector); and location factors (urban-rural and province which individual reside and work), significantly affects individual earning in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the result of decomposing this earnings inequality indicate that factor causing earnings inequality between “male” and “female” is about 41.6 percent caused by endowment differences. On the other hand, most of the gap about 58.4 percent attributed to unobserved and unexplained factors, rather than attributed to differences in observable endowments.

Suggested Citation

  • Viktor Pirmana, 2006. "Earnings Differential Between Male-Female In Indonesia: Evidence From Sakernas Data," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 200608, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Aug 2006.
  • Handle: RePEc:unp:wpaper:200608

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ravallion, Martin, 1997. "Can high-inequality developing countries escape absolute poverty?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 51-57, September.
    2. Manning,Chris, 1998. "Indonesian Labour in Transition," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521594127, June.
    3. Cotton, Jeremiah, 1988. "On the Decomposition of Wage Differentials," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(2), pages 236-243, May.
    4. Card, David & Krueger, Alan B, 1992. "Does School Quality Matter? Returns to Education and the Characteristics of Public Schools in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(1), pages 1-40, February.
    5. Kang, Byung-Goo & Yun, Myeong-Su, 2008. "Changes in Korean Wage Inequality, 1980?2005," IZA Discussion Papers 3780, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    Cited by:

    1. Margherita Comola & Luiz de Mello, 2013. "Salaried employment and earnings in Indonesia: new evidence on the selection bias," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(19), pages 2808-2816, July.
    2. Ramstetter, Eric D. & Narjoko, Dionisius, 2013. "Wage Differentials between Foreign Multinationals and Local Plants and Worker Education in Indonesian Manufacturing," AGI Working Paper Series 2013-23, Asian Growth Research Institute.
    3. Lamazi & Syamsurijal A.K & NurlinaTarmizi & Tatang A.M Sariman, 2016. "Analysis Factors That Influence Wage Disparity Between Female Workers In Urban And Rural Areas In South Sumatera," Eurasian Journal of Economics and Finance, Eurasian Publications, vol. 4(3), pages 54-63.
    4. Ramstetter, Eric D., 2014. "Exporting, Education, and Wage Differentials between Foreign Multinationals and Local Plants in Indonesian and Malaysian Manufacturing," AGI Working Paper Series 2014-03, Asian Growth Research Institute.
    5. repec:hrs:journl:v:ix:y:2017:i:2:p:109-117 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Earnings inequality; Decomposition analysis; SAKERNAS; Indonesia;

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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