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Target Zones for Exchange Rates and Policy Changes


  • John Driffill (Birkbeck College)
  • Martin Sola (UTDT)


We extend a target zone model to allow for occasional changes in the policy regime which change the stochastic process driving fundamentals. A scenario we have in mind is that macroeconomic policy alternates between relatively tight and loose regimes. A key implication of our analysis is that occurrences which have the appearance of speculative attacks on a currency may be associated with market perceptions of a policy regime switch having taken place. This applies both to a sudden weakening and strengthening of a currency. Our model provides an explanation, based on fundamentals, why large changes in the exchange rate might be associated with no discernible contemporaneous change in the fundamental. Therefore the model provides an explanation for this phenomenon that is an alternative to explanations based on self-fulfilling expectations. Compared with most other models of target zones, other than those relying on intra-marginal intervention, this model is better able to reproduce key features of empirical distributions of exchange rates within the band. The distribution generated by our model has more mass at the centre and less at the edges of the band than is the case for most other models.

Suggested Citation

  • John Driffill (Birkbeck College) & Martin Sola (UTDT), 2005. "Target Zones for Exchange Rates and Policy Changes," Department of Economics Working Papers 2005-03, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella.
  • Handle: RePEc:udt:wpecon:2005-03

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Robert P. Flood & Peter M. Garber, 1991. "The Linkage Between Speculative Attack and Target Zone Models of Exchange Rates," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(4), pages 1367-1372.
    2. Giuseppe Bertola & Lars E. O. Svensson, 1993. "Stochastic Devaluation Risk and the Empirical Fit of Target-Zone Models," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 689-712.
    3. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1986. "Rational and Self-fulfilling Balance-of-Payments Crises," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(1), pages 72-81, March.
    4. Campa, Jose M & Chang, P H Kevin, 1998. "ERM Realignment Risk and Its Economic Determinants as Reflected in Cross-Rate Options," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(449), pages 1046-1066, July.
    5. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1996. "Models of currency crises with self-fulfilling features," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1037-1047, April.
    6. Froot, Kenneth A. & Obstfeld, Maurice, 1991. "Exchange-rate dynamics under stochastic regime shifts : A unified approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3-4), pages 203-229, November.
    7. Paul Krugman & Marcus Miller, 1992. "Exchange Rate Targets and Currency Bands," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number krug92-1, January.
    8. Rose, Andrew K & Svensson, Lars E O, 1991. "Expected and Predicted Realignments: The FF/DM Exchange Rate During the EMS," CEPR Discussion Papers 552, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Tristani, Oreste, 1994. " Variable Probability of Realignment in a Target Zone," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 96(1), pages 1-14.
    10. Driffill, John & Sola, Martin, 1998. "Intrinsic bubbles and regime-switching," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 357-373, July.
    11. Flood, Robert P. & Rose, Andrew K. & Mathieson, Donald J., 1991. "An empirical exploration of exchange-rate target-zones," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 7-65, January.
    12. Sola, Martin & Driffill, John, 1994. "Testing the term structure of interest rates using a stationary vector autoregression with regime switching," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 18(3-4), pages 601-628.
    13. Miller, Marcus & Sutherland, Alan, 1990. "Britain's Return to Gold and Entry into the EMS: Expectations, Joining Conditions and Credibility," CEPR Discussion Papers 465, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Lars E. O. Svensson, 1992. "An Interpretation of Recent Research on Exchange Rate Target Zones," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(4), pages 119-144, Fall.
    15. Blackburn, Keith & Sola, Martin, 1993. " Speculative Currency Attacks and Balance of Payments Crises," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(2), pages 119-144, June.
    16. Willman, Alpo, 1987. "Speculative attacks on the currency with uncertain monetary policy reactions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 75-78.
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    Cited by:

    1. António Portugal Duarte & João Sousa Andrade & Adelaide Duarte, 2013. "Exchange Rate Target Zones: A Survey Of The Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(2), pages 247-268, April.
    2. Bauer, Christian & De Grauwe, Paul & Reitz, Stefan, 2009. "Exchange rate dynamics in a target zone--A heterogeneous expectations approach," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 329-344, February.
    3. Peter Carr & Zura Kakushadze, 2015. "FX Options in Target Zone," Papers 1512.01527,, revised Jul 2016.


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