The Flypaper Effect: Evidence from the Italian National Health System
Public expenditure reduction in Italy is achieved through a revision of social security and health care programmes. In particular, public health expenditure control has been implemented through a reform that imposes more stringent budget rules at local level and a considerable reduction in the grants-in-aid from central government. The response to a decrease in categorical lump-sum grants from the central to local governments might result in an asymmetrical response to intergovernmental grants: local spending is highly responsive to increases in grants, but it is relatively insensitive to grants reduction [Stine, 1994; Gramkhar and Oates, 1996]. In our paper we have estimated this hypothesis using a sample of cross-sectional and time- observations covering the 20 Italian regions over the period 1989-1993. Two different models have been estimated based on different budget balance rules. The empirical results of our model show the existence of a standard and a super flypaper effect in both models. The introduction of the soft-budget constraint hypothesis results in a stronger effect of grants and a lower response of own resources which shows that before reducing expenditure regional governments prefer to incur some deficit.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- M. Dewatripont & E. Maskin, 1995. "Credit and Efficiency in Centralized and Decentralized Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(4), pages 541-555.
- Yingyi Qian & Gerard Roland, .
"Federalism and the Soft Budget Constraint,"
97045, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
- Goodspeed, Timothy J., 1998.
"The Relationship Between State Income Taxes and Local Property Taxes: Education Finance in New Jersey,"
National Tax Journal,
National Tax Association, vol. 51(n. 2), pages 219-38, June.
- Goodspeed, Timothy, 1998. "The Relationship Between State Income Taxes and Local Property Taxes: Education Finance in New Jersey," MPRA Paper 29549, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Miguel Gouveia, 1996. "The public sector and health care," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 3(3), pages 329-349, July.
- János Kornai, 2014.
"The soft budget constraint,"
Akadémiai Kiadó, Hungary, vol. 64(supplemen), pages 25-79, November.
- Miguel Gouveia, 1997.
"Majority rule and the public provision of a private good,"
Springer, vol. 93(3), pages 221-244, December.
- Gouveia, Miguel, 1997. "Majority Rule and the Public Provision of a Private Good," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 93(3-4), pages 221-44, December.
- Gamkhar, Shama & Oates, Wallace E., 1996. "Asymmetries in the Response to Increases and Decreases in Intergovernmental Grants: Some Empirical Findings," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 49(4), pages 501-12, December.
- Anderton, Bob & Pesaran, Bahram & Wren-Lewis, Simon, 1992. "Imports, Output and the Demand for Manufactures," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(2), pages 175-86, April.
- Stine, William F., 1994. "Is Local Government Revenue Response to Federal Aid Symmetrical? Evidence from Pennsylvania County Governments in a Era of Retrenchment," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 47(4), pages 799-816, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:uca:ucapdv:10. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lucia Padovani)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.