Changes in the Terms of Trade and Canada's Productivity Performance
Using new data from Statistics Canada, the paper shows that the productivity performance of the business sector of the Canadian economy has been reasonably satisfactory over the past 46 years. In particular, traditional gross income Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth averaged 1.14 percentage points per year over the period 1961-2006 and when a net income framework was used, TFP growth averaged 1.26 percentage points per year. The focus of the study is on the real income generated by the business sector of the Canadian economy. Two concepts of income are used: a gross concept that includes depreciation as a part of income and a more appropriate net concept where depreciation is excluded from income. In both the gross and net income frameworks, the growth of quality adjusted labour input growth was the main driver of growth in real income followed by TFP growth, followed by growth in capital input and then by falling real import prices. However, in recent years, the contribution of falling real import prices turned out to be more than twice as important as capital deepening. The study encountered many data problems which should be addressed in future work on Canadian business sector productivity performance.
|Date of creation:||11 Mar 2008|
|Date of revision:||18 Jul 2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.economics.ubc.ca/|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Samuelson, Paul A & Swamy, S, 1974. "Invariant Economic Index Numbers and Canonical Duality: Survey and Synthesis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(4), pages 566-593, September.
- Kohli, Ulrich, 2003. "Growth accounting in the open economy: international comparisons," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 417-435.
- D. W. Jorgenson & Z. Griliches, 1967. "The Explanation of Productivity Change," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 34(3), pages 249-283.
- Robert B. Archibald, 1977. "On the Theory of Industrial Price Measurement Output Price Indexes," NBER Chapters,in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 6, number 1, pages 57-72 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ulrich Kohli, 2004. "An Implicit Törnqvist Index of Real GDP," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 337-353, May.
- Sato, Kazuo, 1976. "The Meaning and Measurement of the Real Value Added Index," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 58(4), pages 434-442, November.
- Kevin Fox & Ulrich Kohli, 1998.
"GDP growth, terms-of-trade effects, and total factor productivity,"
The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 87-110.
- Kholi, U. & Fox, K., 1996. "GDP Growth, Terms-of-Trade Effects and Total Factor Productivity," Papers 96/28, New South Wales - School of Economics.
- Rymes, T K, 1983. "More on the Measurement of Total Factor Productivity," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 29(3), pages 297-316, September.
- Dale W. Jorgenson, 1996. "Investment - Vol. 2: Tax Policy and the Cost of Capital," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 2, number 0262100576, January.
- Ulrich Kohli, 2006. "Real GDP, Real GDI and Trading Gains: Canada, 1981-2005," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 13, pages 46-56, Fall.
- F. M. Fisher & K. Shell, 1970. "The Pure Theory of the National-Output Deflator," Working papers 59, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Ulrich R. Kohli, 1978. "A Gross National Product Function and the Derived Demand for Imports and Supply of Exports," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 11(2), pages 167-182, May.
- Lau, Lawrence J., 1976. "A characterization of the normalized restricted profit function," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 131-163, February.
- Diewert, W. E., 1973. "Functional forms for profit and transformation functions," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 284-316, June.
- Paul Schreyer, 2001. "The OECD Productivity Manual: A Guide to the Measurement of Industry-Level and Aggregate Productivity," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 2, pages 37-51, Spring. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)