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Inclusive versus Exclusive Markets: Search Frictions and Competing Mechanisms

Listed author(s):
  • Xiaoming Cai
  • Pieter Gautier
  • Ronald Wolthoff

In a market in which sellers compete for heterogeneous buyers by posting mechanisms, we analyze how the properties of the meeting technology affect the allocation of buyers to sellers. We show that exclusive markets (i.e. a separate submarket for each type of buyer) are the efficient outcome if and only if meetings are bilateral. In contrast, an inclusive market (i.e. a single market in which all buyer types pool) is optimal if and only if the meeting technology satisfies a novel condition, which we call "love for variety." Both outcomes can be decentralized by sellers posting auctions combined with a fee that is paid by (or to) all buyers with whom the seller meets. Finally, we compare love for variety to two other properties of meeting technologies, invariance and non-rivalry, and explain the differences.

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Paper provided by University of Toronto, Department of Economics in its series Working Papers with number tecipa-545.

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Length: Unknown pages
Date of creation: 04 Aug 2015
Handle: RePEc:tor:tecipa:tecipa-545
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  1. Guido Menzio & Shouyong Shi, 2009. "Efficient Search on the Job and the Business Cycle," NBER Working Papers 14905, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Ronald Wolthoff & Lodewijk Visschers & Benjamin Lester, 2012. "Asking Prices and Inspection Goods," 2012 Meeting Papers 792, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  3. Benjamin Lester & Ludo Visschers & Ronald Wolthoff, 2013. "Competing with asking prices," Working Papers 13-07, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  4. Philipp Kircher, 2009. "Efficiency of Simultaneous Search," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 117(5), pages 861-913, October.
  5. Gautier, Pieter A. & Moraga-González, José L. & Wolthoff, Ronald P., 2016. "Search costs and efficiency: Do unemployed workers search enough?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 123-139.
  6. Michael Peters & Sergei Severinov, 1995. "Competition Among Sellers who offer Auctions Instead of Prices," Working Papers peters-95-02, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  7. Benjamin Lester & Ludo Visschers & Ronald Wolthoff, 2014. "Meeting Technologies and Optimal Trading Mechanisms in Competitive Search Markets," ESE Discussion Papers 242, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  8. Manolis Galenianos & Philipp Kircher, 2009. "Directed search with multiple job applications," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 29702, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  9. Robert Shimer, 2001. "The Assignment of Workers to Jobs In an Economy with Coordination Frictions," NBER Working Papers 8501, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. McAfee, R Preston & McMillan, John, 1987. "Auctions and Bidding," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 25(2), pages 699-738, June.
  11. Moen, E.R., 1995. "Competitive Search Equilibrium," Memorandum 37/1995, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  12. Robert Shimer & Randall Wright & Veronica Guerrieri, 2009. "Adverse Selection in Competitive Search Equilibrium," 2009 Meeting Papers 139, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  13. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1993. "A Search-Theoretic Approach to Monetary Economics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 63-77, March.
  14. Kenneth Burdett & Shouyong Shi & Randall Wright, 2001. "Pricing and Matching with Frictions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(5), pages 1060-1085, October.
  15. Gautier, Pieter A. & Wolthoff, Ronald P., 2009. "Simultaneous search with heterogeneous firms and ex post competition," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 311-319, June.
  16. Geromichalos, Athanasios, 2012. "Directed search and optimal production," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 147(6), pages 2303-2331.
  17. Michael Peters, 1997. "A Competitive Distribution of Auctions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(1), pages 97-123.
  18. Shi, Shouyong, 2006. "Wage differentials, discrimination and efficiency," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 849-875, May.
  19. Epstein, Larry G. & Peters, Michael, 1999. "A Revelation Principle for Competing Mechanisms," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 119-160, September.
  20. Pieter A. Gautier & Coen N. Teulings & Aico Van Vuuren, 2010. "On-the-Job Search, Mismatch and Efficiency ," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(1), pages 245-272.
  21. Ronald Wolthoff, 2014. "Applications and Interviews: Firms' Recruiting Decisions in a Frictional Labor Market," Working Papers tecipa-522, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  22. Gerard R. Butters, 1977. "Equilibrium Distributions of Sales and Advertising Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(3), pages 465-491.
  23. McAfee, R Preston, 1993. "Mechanism Design by Competing Sellers," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(6), pages 1281-1312, November.
  24. Ronald Wolthoff & Benjamin Lester, 2012. "Interviews and the Assignment of Workers to Jobs," 2012 Meeting Papers 631, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  25. Guido Menzio & Shouyong Shi, 2008. "Efficient Search on the Job and the Business Cycle, Second Version," PIER Working Paper Archive 09-010, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, revised 28 Feb 2009.
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