The Backward-bending Commute times of Married Women with Household Responsibility
Though the existing literature provides evidence that married women choose short commutes because of low wages and household responsibilities, this theoretical paper shows that wives employed in highly paid positions also undertake short commutes and endogenously choose longer times for housework. In contrast, middle-class wives choose long commutes and undertake limited household chores. The results suggest that the commute times of wives follow a backward-bending pattern and there is a tradeo? between commute time and the hours devoted to housework in terms of wage rates. Using a sample of married women working full time from the 1993 Japanese Panel Survey of Consumers, we obtain empirical evidence supporting these predictions.
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