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Accelerating GARCH and Score-Driven Models: Optimality, Estimation and Forecasting

Listed author(s):
  • Francisco (F.) Blasques

    ()

    (VU Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Tinbergen Institute, The Netherlands)

  • Paolo Gorgi

    ()

    (VU Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

  • Siem Jan (S.J.) Koopman

    ()

    (VU Amsterdam, The Netherlands; CREATES, Aarhus University, Denmark)

We first consider an extension of the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model that allows for a more flexible weighting of financial squared-returns for the filtering of volatility. The parameter for the squared-return in the GARCH model is time- varying with an updating function similar to GARCH but with the squared-return replaced by the product of the volatility innovation and its lagged value. This local estimate of the first order autocorrelation of volatility innovations acts as an indicator of the importance of the squared-return for volatility updating. When recent volatility innovations have the same sign (positive autocorrelation), the current volatility estimate needs to adjust more quickly than in a period where recent volatility innovations have mixed signs (negative autocorrelation). The empirical relevance of the accelerated GARCH updating is illustrated by forecasting daily volatility in return series of all individual stocks present in the Standard & Poor’s 500 index. Major improvements are reported for those stock return series that exhibit high kurtosis. The local adjustment in weighting new observational information is generalised to score-driven time-varying parameter models of which GARCH is a special case. It is within this general framework that we provide the theoretical foundations of accelerated updating. We show that acceleration in updating is more optimal in terms of reducing Kullback-Leibler divergence and in comparison to fixed updating. The robustness of our proposed extension is highlighted in a simulation study within a misspecified modelling framework. The score-driven acceleration is also empirically illustrated with the forecasting of US inflation using a model with time-varying mean and variance; we report significant improvements in the forecasting accuracy at a yearly horizon.

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Paper provided by Tinbergen Institute in its series Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers with number 17-059/III.

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Date of creation: 05 Jul 2017
Handle: RePEc:tin:wpaper:20170059
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  1. F. Blasques & S. J. Koopman & A. Lucas, 2015. "Information-theoretic optimality of observation-driven time series models for continuous responses," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 102(2), pages 325-343.
  2. Raffaella Giacomini & Halbert White, 2006. "Tests of Conditional Predictive Ability," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(6), pages 1545-1578, November.
  3. Creal, Drew & Koopman, Siem Jan & Lucas, André, 2011. "A Dynamic Multivariate Heavy-Tailed Model for Time-Varying Volatilities and Correlations," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 29(4), pages 552-563.
  4. Andrew Harvey & Alessandra Luati, 2014. "Filtering With Heavy Tails," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 109(507), pages 1112-1122, September.
  5. Diebold, Francis X & Mariano, Roberto S, 2002. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 134-144, January.
  6. Durbin, James & Koopman, Siem Jan, 2012. "Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780199641178.
  7. De Lira Salvatierra, Irving & Patton, Andrew J., 2015. "Dynamic copula models and high frequency data," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 120-135.
  8. Geweke, John & Amisano, Gianni, 2011. "Optimal prediction pools," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 164(1), pages 130-141, September.
  9. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
  10. Bollerslev, Tim & Patton, Andrew J. & Quaedvlieg, Rogier, 2016. "Exploiting the errors: A simple approach for improved volatility forecasting," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 192(1), pages 1-18.
  11. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 2007. "Why Has U.S. Inflation Become Harder to Forecast?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(s1), pages 3-33, February.
  12. Drew Creal & Siem Jan Koopman & André Lucas, 2013. "Generalized Autoregressive Score Models With Applications," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(5), pages 777-795, August.
  13. Ullah, Aman, 2002. "Uses of entropy and divergence measures for evaluating econometric approximations and inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 107(1-2), pages 313-326, March.
  14. Maasoumi, Esfandiar, 1986. "The Measurement and Decomposition of Multi-dimensional Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(4), pages 991-997, July.
  15. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
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