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Score-driven exponentially weighted moving averages and Value-at-Risk forecasting

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  • Lucas, André
  • Zhang, Xin

Abstract

We present a simple methodology for modeling the time variation in volatilities and other higher-order moments using a recursive updating scheme that is similar to the familiar RiskMetrics™ approach. The parameters are updated using the score of the forecasting distribution, which allows the parameter dynamics to adapt automatically to any non-normal data features, and increases the robustness of the subsequent estimates. The new approach nests several of the earlier extensions to the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) scheme. In addition, it can be extended easily to higher dimensions and alternative forecasting distributions. The method is applied to Value-at-Risk forecasting with (skewed) Student’s t distributions and a time-varying degrees of freedom and/or skewness parameter. We show that the new method is as good as or better than earlier methods for forecasting the volatility of individual stock returns and exchange rate returns.

Suggested Citation

  • Lucas, André & Zhang, Xin, 2016. "Score-driven exponentially weighted moving averages and Value-at-Risk forecasting," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 293-302.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:32:y:2016:i:2:p:293-302
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2015.09.003
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. F. Blasques & S. J. Koopman & A. Lucas, 2015. "Information-theoretic optimality of observation-driven time series models for continuous responses," Biometrika, Biometrika Trust, vol. 102(2), pages 325-343.
    2. Drew Creal & Bernd Schwaab & Siem Jan Koopman & Andr� Lucas, 2014. "Observation-Driven Mixed-Measurement Dynamic Factor Models with an Application to Credit Risk," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 96(5), pages 898-915, December.
    3. Schwert, G William, 1990. "Stock Volatility and the Crash of '87," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(1), pages 77-102.
    4. Creal, Drew & Koopman, Siem Jan & Lucas, André, 2011. "A Dynamic Multivariate Heavy-Tailed Model for Time-Varying Volatilities and Correlations," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 29(4), pages 552-563.
    5. Berkowitz, Jeremy, 2001. "Testing Density Forecasts, with Applications to Risk Management," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(4), pages 465-474, October.
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    7. Richard Gerlach & Zudi Lu & Hai Huang, 2013. "Exponentially Smoothing the Skewed Laplace Distribution for Value‐at‐Risk Forecasting," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(6), pages 534-550, September.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. David Ardia & Kris Boudt & Leopoldo Catania, 2016. "Generalized Autoregressive Score Models in R: The GAS Package," Papers 1609.02354, arXiv.org.
    2. Alexandros Gabrielsen & Axel Kirchner & Zhuoshi Liu & Paolo Zagaglia, 2015. "Forecasting Value-At-Risk With Time-Varying Variance, Skewness And Kurtosis In An Exponential Weighted Moving Average Framework," Annals of Financial Economics (AFE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 10(01), pages 1-29.
    3. Andre Lucas & Julia Schaumburg & Bernd Schwaab, 2016. "Bank Business Models at Zero Interest Rates," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 16-066/IV, Tinbergen Institute.
    4. Ito, R., 2016. "Spline-DCS for Forecasting Trade Volume in High-Frequency Finance," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1606, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    5. Mauro Bernardi & Leopoldo Catania, 2016. "Comparison of Value-at-Risk models using the MCS approach," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 579-608, June.
    6. Paolo Gorgi & Siem Jan (S.J.) Koopman & Mengheng Li, 2018. "Forecasting economic time series using score-driven dynamic models with mixed-data sampling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 18-026/III, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Ryoko Ito, 2016. "Asymptotic Theory for Beta-t-GARCH," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1607, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    8. Rutger-Jan Lange & Andre Lucas & Arjen H. Siegmann, 2016. "Score-Driven Systemic Risk Signaling for European Sovereign Bond Yields and CDS Spreads," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 16-064/IV, Tinbergen Institute.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Dynamic volatilities; Dynamic higher-order moments; Integrated generalized autoregressive score models; Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA); Value-at-Risk (VaR);

    JEL classification:

    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • C52 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • G15 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - International Financial Markets

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