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Bank Lending and Monetary Shocks: an Empirical Investigation

  • Amjad Ali

    (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • M. Ali Choudhary

    (State Bank of Pakistan and University of Surrey)

  • Shah Hussain

    (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • Vasco J. Gabriel

    (University of Surrey)

This paper provides a systematic empirical study of the role of credit market frictions in the transmission of monetary shocks. First, using macro data for a developing economy (Pakistan), we show that banking spreads are countercyclical, even when we control for credit risk, monetary policy and potential maturity mismatches. Moreover, we find that this anticyclical nature is accentuated in the presence of government as an active participant in the private credit market. Then, using a unique dataset on corporate loan agreements for the period 2006-2011, we find evidence that, in times of tight monetary conditions, there is an overall increase in the pass-through of policy impulses to individual loans rates. Furthermore, our evidence suggest that the impact of these shocks is disproportionately felt by borrowers and is especially biased towards less established firms. Moreover, small (weak) banks change their loan conditions the most in tight conditions. Thus, our findings support the view that the existence of a credit channel is particularly relevant for emerging economies, hence emphasizing the need for appropriate stabilization policies.

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File URL: http://www.fahs.surrey.ac.uk/economics/discussion_papers/2012/DP02-12.pdf
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Paper provided by School of Economics, University of Surrey in its series School of Economics Discussion Papers with number 0212.

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Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:sur:surrec:0212
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  1. Ben Bernanke, 1990. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transnission," NBER Working Papers 3487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Simon G. Gilchrist & Ben Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1994. "The financial accelerator and the flight to quality," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 94-18, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Atif Mian & Asim Ijaz Khwaja, 2006. "Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks: Evidence from an Emerging Market," NBER Working Papers 12612, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Gali Jordi, 1994. "Monopolistic Competition, Business Cycles, and the Composition of Aggregate Demand," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 73-96, June.
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  8. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Working Papers 95-15, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  9. Abdul Qayyum & Sajawal Khan & Idrees Khawaja, 2005. "Interest Rate Pass-through in Pakistan: Evidence from Transfer Function Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 975-1001.
  10. John B. Taylor, 1995. "The Monetary Transmission Mechanism: An Empirical Framework," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 11-26, Fall.
  11. Turgutlu, Evrim, 2010. "Cyclical behavior of price-cost margins in the Turkish banking industry," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 368-374, January.
  12. Kishan, Ruby P & Opiela, Timothy P, 2000. "Bank Size, Bank Capital, and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 121-41, February.
  13. Angelini, Paolo & Cetorelli, Nicola, 2003. " The Effects of Regulatory Reform on Competition in the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(5), pages 663-84, October.
  14. Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1991. "Monetary Policy, Business Cycles and the Behavior of Small Manufacturing Firms," NBER Working Papers 3892, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Jeremy C. Stein & Anil K. Kashyap, 2000. "What Do a Million Observations on Banks Say about the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 407-428, June.
  16. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1995. "Symposium on the Monetary Transmission Mechanism," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 3-10, Fall.
  17. Allan H. Meltzer, 1995. "Monetary, Credit and (Other) Transmission Processes: A Monetarist Perspective," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 49-72, Fall.
  18. den Haan, Wouter J., 2000. "The comovement between output and prices," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 3-30, August.
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