IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bank Lending and Monetary Shocks: an Empirical Investigation


  • Amjad Ali

    (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • M. Ali Choudhary

    (State Bank of Pakistan and University of Surrey)

  • Shah Hussain

    (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • Vasco J. Gabriel

    (University of Surrey)


This paper provides a systematic empirical study of the role of credit market frictions in the transmission of monetary shocks. First, using macro data for a developing economy (Pakistan), we show that banking spreads are countercyclical, even when we control for credit risk, monetary policy and potential maturity mismatches. Moreover, we find that this anticyclical nature is accentuated in the presence of government as an active participant in the private credit market. Then, using a unique dataset on corporate loan agreements for the period 2006-2011, we find evidence that, in times of tight monetary conditions, there is an overall increase in the pass-through of policy impulses to individual loans rates. Furthermore, our evidence suggest that the impact of these shocks is disproportionately felt by borrowers and is especially biased towards less established firms. Moreover, small (weak) banks change their loan conditions the most in tight conditions. Thus, our findings support the view that the existence of a credit channel is particularly relevant for emerging economies, hence emphasizing the need for appropriate stabilization policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Amjad Ali & M. Ali Choudhary & Shah Hussain & Vasco J. Gabriel, 2012. "Bank Lending and Monetary Shocks: an Empirical Investigation," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0212, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
  • Handle: RePEc:sur:surrec:0212

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1996. "The Financial Accelerator and the Flight to Quality," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(1), pages 1-15, February.
    2. Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1994. "Monetary Policy, Business Cycles, and the Behavior of Small Manufacturing Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(2), pages 309-340.
    3. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
    4. Gali Jordi, 1994. "Monopolistic Competition, Business Cycles, and the Composition of Aggregate Demand," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 73-96, June.
    5. Ashcraft, Adam B., 2006. "New Evidence on the Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(3), pages 751-775, April.
    6. Asim Ijaz Khwaja & Atif Mian, 2008. "Tracing the Impact of Bank Liquidity Shocks: Evidence from an Emerging Market," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1413-1442, September.
    7. Bernanke, Ben & Gertler, Mark, 1989. "Agency Costs, Net Worth, and Business Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 14-31, March.
    8. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-921, September.
    9. Abdul Qayyum & Sajawal Khan & Idrees Khawaja, 2005. "Interest Rate Pass-through in Pakistan: Evidence from Transfer Function Approach," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 975-1001.
    10. Kishan, Ruby P & Opiela, Timothy P, 2000. "Bank Size, Bank Capital, and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 121-141, February.
    11. John B. Taylor, 1995. "The Monetary Transmission Mechanism: An Empirical Framework," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 11-26, Fall.
    12. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1995. "Symposium on the Monetary Transmission Mechanism," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 3-10, Fall.
    13. Allan H. Meltzer, 1995. "Monetary, Credit and (Other) Transmission Processes: A Monetarist Perspective," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 49-72, Fall.
    14. Turgutlu, Evrim, 2010. "Cyclical behavior of price-cost margins in the Turkish banking industry," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 368-374, January.
    15. Jeremy C. Stein & Anil K. Kashyap, 2000. "What Do a Million Observations on Banks Say about the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 407-428, June.
    16. den Haan, Wouter J., 2000. "The comovement between output and prices," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 3-30, August.
    17. Angelini, Paolo & Cetorelli, Nicola, 2003. " The Effects of Regulatory Reform on Competition in the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(5), pages 663-684, October.
    18. Aliaga-Díaz, Roger & Olivero, María Pía, 2010. "Is there a financial accelerator in US banking?: Evidence from the cyclicality of banks' price-cost margins," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 167-171, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Ahmet F. Aysan & Mustafa Disli & Huseyin Ozturk, 2017. "Bank Lending Channel In A Dual Banking System:Why Are Islamic Banks So Responsive?," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 17/938, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.

    More about this item


    Bank Margins; Credit Channel; Monetary Policy;

    JEL classification:

    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sur:surrec:0212. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ioannis Lazopoulos). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.