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Direct load control of residential water heaters




In Norway there is a growing concern that electricity production and transmission may not meet the demand in peak-load situations. It is therefore important to evaluate the potential of different demand side measures that may contribute to reduce peak load. This paper analyses data from an experiment where residential water heaters were automatically disconnected during peak periods of the day. A model of hourly electricity consumption is used to evaluate the effects on the load of the disconnections. The results indicate an average consumption reduction per household of approximately 0.5 kWh/h during disconnection, and an additional average increase in consumption the following hour, due to the payback effect, of approximately 0.2 kWh/h.

Suggested Citation

  • Torgeir Ericson, 2006. "Direct load control of residential water heaters," Discussion Papers 479, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:479

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ramanathan, Ramu & Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive W. J. & Vahid-Araghi, Farshid & Brace, Casey, 1997. "Shorte-run forecasts of electricity loads and peaks," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 161-174, June.
    2. Hendricks, Wallace & Koenker, Roger & Poirier, Dale J., 1979. "Residential demand for electricity : An econometric approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1-2), pages 33-57, January.
    3. Granger, Clive W. J. & Engle, Robert & Ramanathan, Ramu & Andersen, Allan, 1979. "Residential load curves and time-of-day pricing : An econometric analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1-2), pages 13-32, January.
    4. Pardo, Angel & Meneu, Vicente & Valor, Enric, 2002. "Temperature and seasonality influences on Spanish electricity load," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 55-70, January.
    5. Henley, Andrew & Peirson, John, 1998. "Residential energy demand and the interaction of price and temperature: British experimental evidence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 157-171, April.
    6. Henley, Andrew & Peirson, John, 1997. "Non-linearities in Electricity Demand and Temperature: Parametric versus Non-parametric Methods," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 59(1), pages 149-162, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gyamfi, Samuel & Krumdieck, Susan & Urmee, Tania, 2013. "Residential peak electricity demand response—Highlights of some behavioural issues," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 71-77.

    More about this item


    Direct load control; Demand response; Load management; Water heaters;

    JEL classification:

    • D10 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - General
    • Q41 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Demand and Supply; Prices

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