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Is Health Care a Necessity or a Luxury? New Evidence from a Panel of U.S. State-Level Data

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  • Donald G. Freeman

    () (Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University)

Abstract

This paper estimates the income elasticity of health care expenditures using annual data on health spending by state in the U.S. from 1966-2009. Panel stationarity tests incorporating structural breaks in the levels and trends in Health Care Expenditures and Disposable Personal Income yield inconsistent results, with stationarity rejected for HCE but not for DPI. Regression results using levels estimation robust to orders of integration differed considerably depending on time period, and the cross-state variation in elasticity estimates was quite large. Results of the first difference models provide more consistent estimates across time periods, whether expressed as averages of individual state estimates or as pooled time series. Income elasticities for the full sample fall in the range 0.21-0.22, below that of recent research.

Suggested Citation

  • Donald G. Freeman, 2012. "Is Health Care a Necessity or a Luxury? New Evidence from a Panel of U.S. State-Level Data," Working Papers 1203, Sam Houston State University, Department of Economics and International Business.
  • Handle: RePEc:shs:wpaper:1203
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Guglielmo Maria Caporale & Juncal Cunado & Luis A. Gil - Alana & Rangan Gupta, 2015. "The Relationship between Healthcare expenditures and Disposable Personal Income in the US States: A Fractional Integration and Cointegration Analysis," Working Papers 201532, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    2. Nicholas Apergis & Rangan Gupta & Chi Keung Marco Lau & Zinnia Mukherjee, 2016. "An Analysis of the Relationship between U.S. State Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Health Care Expenditure," Working Papers 201618, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    3. Svetlana N. Beilfuss & James A. Thornton, 2016. "Pathways and Hidden Benefits of Healthcare Spending Growth in the U.S," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 44(3), pages 363-375, September.

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