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Special Economic Zones - 20 years later

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  • Camilla Jensen
  • Marcin winiarczyk

Abstract

In this paper we undertake an ex-post evaluation of whether the special economic zones (SEZs) introduced in Poland in 994 have been successful in meeting regional development objectives. We evaluate the policy on as many of its objectives as possible: employment creation, business creation (which includes attracting foreign direct investment), income or wage effects, and environmental sustainability. We use different panel data methods to investigate this question at the powiat (nuts4 or something similar to a commune) and gmina (nuts5 or something similar to a village) levels in Poland during the 995-20 period. It is also possible to include numerous controls to reduce the problem of the omitted variables bias such as education level, dependency rates, state ownership, general subsidies and whether the area is urban or rural. Our results indicate that SEZs in Poland have been successful in a number of their objectives such as private business creation. The positive effect of the policy however mainly comes through foreign direct investment (FDI), whereas the effects on e.g. investment and employment are small or insignificant. In other areas, such as securing higher income levels and locking firms into the sustainability agenda through the adoption of green technologies and reduced air pollution, we find only a small positively moderating effect of the policy on what are traditionally economically disadvantaged areas in Poland that used to be dependent on the socialist production model. Hence, despite high levels of FDI, the zones policy has not managed to overcome the legacy of backwardness or lagging regions. The main policy implication of the paper is that SEZs may be successful in stimulating activity in the short run but the policy must be seen as one of necessary temporality and can therefore not stand alone. Before launching SEZs, policymakers must have plans in place for follow up measures to ensure the longer term competitiveness and sustainability implications of such an initiative. There is a need to understand the connection between the specific incentive schemes used (in this particular case tax incentives were used) and the kinds of firms and activities they attract, including the behavioral models that those incentives promote.

Suggested Citation

  • Camilla Jensen & Marcin winiarczyk, 2014. "Special Economic Zones - 20 years later," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0467, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:sec:cnstan:0467
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Lisa De Propris & Nigel Driffield, 2006. "The importance of clusters for spillovers from foreign direct investment and technology sourcing," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 30(2), pages 277-291, March.
    2. Crozet, Matthieu & Mayer, Thierry & Mucchielli, Jean-Louis, 2004. "How do firms agglomerate? A study of FDI in France," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, pages 27-54.
    3. Kripfganz, Sebastian & Schwarz, Claudia, 2013. "Estimation of Linear Dynamic Panel Data Models with Time-Invariant Regressors," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79756, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    4. Becker, Sascha O. & Egger, Peter H. & von Ehrlich, Maximilian, 2010. "Going NUTS: The effect of EU Structural Funds on regional performance," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 578-590.
    5. Sandy Dall'erba & Julie Le Gallo, 2008. "Regional convergence and the impact of European structural funds over 1989-1999: A spatial econometric analysis," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(2), pages 219-244, June.
    6. Mohl, P. & Hagen, T., 2010. "Do EU structural funds promote regional growth? New evidence from various panel data approaches," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 353-365, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Piotr Ciżkowicz & Magda Ciżkowicz-Pękała & Piotr Pękała & Andrzej Rzońca, 2015. "The effects of special economic zones on employment and investment: spatial panel modelling perspective," NBP Working Papers 208, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
    2. Peter Warr & Jayant Menon, 2015. "Cambodia’s Special Economic Zones," Departmental Working Papers 2015-14, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    3. Cizkowicz, Piotr & Cizkowicz-Pekala, Magda & Pekala, Piotr & Rzonca, Andrzej, 2015. "The Effects of Polish Special Economic Zones on Employment and Investment: Spatial Panel Modelling Perspective," MPRA Paper 63176, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Special Economic Zones; Panel Data; Policy Evaluation; Regional Development; Reindustrialization; Competitiveness;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • P25 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies - - - Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics

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