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Bootstrap Procedures for Recursive Estimation Schemes With Applications to Forecast Model Selection

Listed author(s):
  • Valentina Corradi

    ()

    (Queen Mary, University of London)

  • Norman Swanson

    ()

    (Rutgers University)

In recent years it has become apparent that many of the classical testing procedures used to select amongst alternative economic theories and economic models are not realistic. In particular, researchers have become more aware of the fact that parameter estimation error and data dependence play a crucial role in test statistic limiting distributions, a role which had hitherto been ignored to a large extent. Given the fact that one of the primary ways for comparing di®erent models and theories is via use of predictive accuracy tests, it is perhaps not surprising that a large literature on the topic has developed over the last 10 years, including, for example, important papers by Diebold and Mariano (1995), West (1996), and White (2000). In this literature, it is quite common to compare multiple models (which are possibly all misspeci¯ed - i.e. they are all approximations of some unknown true model) in terms of their out of sample predictive ability, for given loss function. Our objectives in this paper are twofold. First, we introduce block bootstrap techniques that are (first order) valid in recursive estimation frameworks. Thereafter, we present two applications where predictive accuracy tests are made operational using our new bootstrap procedures. One of the applications outlines a consistent test for out-of-sample nonlinear Granger causality, and the other outlines a test for selecting amongst multiple alternative forecasting models, all of which may be viewed as approximations of some unknown underlying model. More speci¯cally, our examples extend the White (2000) reality check to the case of non vanishing parameter estimation error, and extend the integrated conditional moment (ICM) tests of Bierens (1982, 1990) and Bierens and Ploberger (1997) to the case of out-of-sample prediction. Of note is that in both of these examples, it is shown that appropriate re-centering of the bootstrap score is required in order to ensure that the tests are properly sized, and the need for such re-centering is shown to arise quite naturally when testing hypotheses of predictive accuracy. The results of a Monte Carlo investigation of the ICM test suggest that the bootstrap procedure proposed in this paper yield tests with reasonable ¯nite sample properties for samples with as few as 300 observations.

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Paper provided by Rutgers University, Department of Economics in its series Departmental Working Papers with number 200418.

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Length: 20 pages
Date of creation: 16 Sep 2004
Handle: RePEc:rut:rutres:200418
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  1. Diebold, Francis X. & Chen, Celia, 1996. "Testing structural stability with endogenous breakpoint A size comparison of analytic and bootstrap procedures," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 221-241, January.
  2. Oliver Linton & Esfandiar Maasoumi & Yoon-Jae Whang, 2005. "Consistent Testing for Stochastic Dominance under General Sampling Schemes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(3), pages 735-765.
  3. Clark, Todd E. & McCracken, Michael W., 2001. "Tests of equal forecast accuracy and encompassing for nested models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 85-110, November.
  4. West, Kenneth D, 1996. "Asymptotic Inference about Predictive Ability," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(5), pages 1067-1084, September.
  5. Inoue, Atsushi & Rossi, Barbara, 2005. "Recursive Predictability Tests for Real-Time Data," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 23, pages 336-345, July.
  6. Corradi, Valentina & Swanson, Norman R., 2004. "Some recent developments in predictive accuracy testing with nested models and (generic) nonlinear alternatives," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 185-199.
  7. Donald W. K. Andrews, 2004. "the Block-Block Bootstrap: Improved Asymptotic Refinements," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(3), pages 673-700, 05.
  8. Diebold, Francis X & Mariano, Roberto S, 2002. "Comparing Predictive Accuracy," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 134-144, January.
  9. repec:cup:etheor:v:13:y:1997:i:6:p:808-17 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. Clive W.J. Granger, 1999. "Outline of forecast theory using generalized cost functions," Spanish Economic Review, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 1(2), pages 161-173.
  11. Norman Swanson & Valentina Corradi, 2004. "Predictive Density Accuracy Tests," Working Papers wp04-16, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
  12. Christoffersen, Peter F. & Diebold, Francis X., 1997. "Optimal Prediction Under Asymmetric Loss," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(06), pages 808-817, December.
  13. Donald W. K. Andrews, 2002. "Higher-Order Improvements of a Computationally Attractive "k"-Step Bootstrap for Extremum Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 119-162, January.
  14. Graham Elliott & Allan Timmermann, 2005. "Optimal Forecast Combination Under Regime Switching ," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1081-1102, November.
  15. Wooldridge, Jeffrey M. & White, Halbert, 1988. "Some Invariance Principles and Central Limit Theorems for Dependent Heterogeneous Processes," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(02), pages 210-230, August.
  16. Stinchcombe, Maxwell B. & White, Halbert, 1998. "Consistent Specification Testing With Nuisance Parameters Present Only Under The Alternative," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(03), pages 295-325, June.
  17. Norman R. Swanson & Halbert White, 1997. "A Model Selection Approach To Real-Time Macroeconomic Forecasting Using Linear Models And Artificial Neural Networks," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 540-550, November.
  18. Corradi, Valentina & Swanson, Norman R., 2006. "Predictive Density Evaluation," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
  19. Schorfheide, Frank, 2005. "VAR forecasting under misspecification," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 99-136, September.
  20. Elliott, Graham & Timmermann, Allan, 2004. "Optimal forecast combinations under general loss functions and forecast error distributions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 47-79, September.
  21. Hansen, Bruce E, 1996. "Inference When a Nuisance Parameter Is Not Identified under the Null Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(2), pages 413-430, March.
  22. Goncalves, Silvia & White, Halbert, 2004. "Maximum likelihood and the bootstrap for nonlinear dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 119(1), pages 199-219, March.
  23. Bierens, Herman J., 1982. "Consistent model specification tests," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 105-134, October.
  24. Chao, John & Corradi, Valentina & Swanson, Norman R., 2001. "Out-Of-Sample Tests For Granger Causality," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(04), pages 598-620, September.
  25. Corradi, Valentina & Swanson, Norman R., 2002. "A consistent test for nonlinear out of sample predictive accuracy," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 353-381, October.
  26. repec:cup:macdyn:v:5:y:2001:i:4:p:598-620 is not listed on IDEAS
  27. Christoffersen, Peter F & Diebold, Francis X, 1996. "Further Results on Forecasting and Model Selection under Asymmetric Loss," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(5), pages 561-571, Sept.-Oct.
  28. Weiss, Andrew A, 1996. "Estimating Time Series Models Using the Relevant Cost Function," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(5), pages 539-560, Sept.-Oct.
  29. Hall, Peter & Horowitz, Joel L, 1996. "Bootstrap Critical Values for Tests Based on Generalized-Method-of-Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 891-916, July.
  30. Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
  31. Filippo Altissimo & Valentina Corradi, 2002. "Bounds for inference with nuisance parameters present only under the alternative," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 5(2), pages 494-519, 06.
  32. McCracken, Michael W., 2007. "Asymptotics for out of sample tests of Granger causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 140(2), pages 719-752, October.
  33. Halbert White, 2000. "A Reality Check for Data Snooping," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(5), pages 1097-1126, September.
  34. Norman R. Swanson, 2000. "An Out of Sample Test for Granger Causality," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0362, Econometric Society.
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