On the Progressivity of the Child Care Tax Credit: Snapshot versus Time-Exposure Incidence
We evaluate the progressivity of the federal child care tax credit using the Ernst and Young/University of Michigan panel of tax return data. Incidence measures are calculated using both annual and "time-exposure" income to measure ability to pay. Both indicate that the benefits of the credit are progressively distributed. Replacing annual with time-exposure income dramatically increases the proportion of the credit received by lower-income taxpayers and yields a more even distribution of benefits across middle- and upper-income taxpayers. Our results suggest that policy-makers should use both income measures to evaluate the credit.
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- Milton Friedman, 1957. "A Theory of the Consumption Function," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie57-1, March.
- Dunbar, Amy & Nordhauser, Susan, 1991. "Is the Child Care Credit Progressive?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 44(4), pages 519-28, December.
- Lyon, Andrew B & Schwab, Robert M, 1995.
"Consumption Taxes in a Life-Cycle Framework: Are Sin Taxes Regressive?,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 77(3), pages 389-406, August.
- Andrew B. Lyon & Robert M. Schwab, 1991. "Consumption Taxes in a Life-Cycle Framework: Are Sin Taxes Regressive?," NBER Working Papers 3932, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- H. Chernick & A. Reschovsky, . "Is the gasoline tax regressive?," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 980-92, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
- Milton Friedman, 1957. "Introduction to "A Theory of the Consumption Function"," NBER Chapters, in: A Theory of the Consumption Function, pages 1-6 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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