IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/5088.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Distributional Effects of the Tax Treatment of Child Care Expenses

Author

Listed:
  • William M. Gentry
  • Alison P. Hagy

Abstract

Tax relief for child care expenses, encompassing the Child Care Tax Credit and Dependent Care Assistance Plans, is the largest federal government program in the United States aimed at helping families with child care. We examine the distributional effects of these policies among families with children using both the National Child Care Survey and tax return data. Among families that use tax relief, the benefits average 1.24 percent of family income. Benefits as a percentage of income vary systematically over the income distribution. Despite being regressive at low income levels (mainly due to the credit being non-refundable), tax relief is progressively distributed over most of the income distribution with the ratio of benefits to income falling above the bottom quintile of the income distribution. The benefits of tax relief also vary among families with the same income depending on a family's structure and its labor market and child care choices.

Suggested Citation

  • William M. Gentry & Alison P. Hagy, 1995. "The Distributional Effects of the Tax Treatment of Child Care Expenses," NBER Working Papers 5088, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5088
    Note: PE
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w5088.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Blau, David M & Robins, Philip K, 1988. "Child-Care Costs and Family Labor Supply," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 374-381, August.
    2. James J. Heckman, 1974. "Effects of Child-Care Programs on Women's Work Effort," NBER Chapters,in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 136-169 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Martin Feldstein & Daniel R. Feenberg, 1996. "The Taxation of Two-Earner Families," NBER Chapters,in: Empirical Foundations of Household Taxation, pages 39-75 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Dunbar, Amy & Nordhauser, Susan, 1991. "Is the Child Care Credit Progressive?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 44(4), pages 519-28, December.
    5. David C. Ribar, 1992. "Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women: Reduced Form Evidence," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 134-165.
    6. Michael Krashinsky, 1981. "Subsidies To Child Care: Public Policy and Optimality," Public Finance Review, , vol. 9(3), pages 243-269, July.
    7. Altshuler, Rosanne & Schwartz, Amy Ellen, 1996. "On the Progressivity of the Child Care Tax Credit: Snapshot Versus Time-Exposure Incidence," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 49(1), pages 55-71, March.
    8. Dunbar, Amy & Nordhauser, Susan, 1991. "Is the Child Care Credit Progressive?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 44(4), pages 519-528, December.
    9. Connelly, Rachel, 1992. "The Effect of Child Care Costs on Married Women's Labor Force Participation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(1), pages 83-90, February.
    10. Charles Michalopoulos & Philip K. Robins & Irwin Garfinkel, 1992. "A Structural Model of Labor Supply and Child Care Demand," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 27(1), pages 166-203.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Maria-Isabel Farfan-Portet & Vincent Lorant & Francesca Petrella, 2011. "Access to Childcare Services: The Role of Demand and Supply-Side Policies," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 30(2), pages 165-183, April.
    2. Patricia Apps, 2002. "Why an Earned income tax credit program is a mistake for Australia," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE), Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 5(4), pages 549-568, December.
    3. Patricia M. Anderson & Philip B. Levine, 1999. "Child Care and Mothers' Employment Decisions," NBER Working Papers 7058, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. David T. Ellwood & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2001. "The Middle-Class Parent Penalty: Child Benefits in the U.S. Tax Code," NBER Chapters,in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 15, pages 1-40 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5088. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.