Psychological Empowerment in the Workplace: Reviewing the Empowerment Effects on Critical Work Outcomes
This paper reviews theory and empirical findings on the effects of empowerment in the workplace. Data from existing studies is used to assess the effects of the four empowerment dimensions on affective and behavioral employee responses. Data is reanalyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. Confirming growing skepticism among practitioners and academics, this study indicates that empowerment practices result in more satisfied and committed, but not necessarily better performing employees. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a differential impact of the distinct empowerment dimensions on employee performance levels. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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- Ashforth, Blake E., 1989. "The experience of powerlessness in organizations," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 207-242, April.
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