IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/red/sed018/616.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Monetary Transmission through Shadow Banks

Author

Listed:
  • Kairong Xiao

Abstract

This paper documents a new transmission channel of monetary policy: the shadow money channel. Analyzing U.S. money supply data from 1987 to 2012, I find that shadow money, namely liquid deposits created by shadow banks, expands significantly when the Federal Reserve tightens monetary policy. Using a structural model of bank competition, I show that this new channel is a result of imperfect competition between commercial and shadow banks in the deposit market with heterogeneous depositors. Due to a lack of a bank charter, shadow banks offer lower transaction convenience and hence must compete on yields. During periods of monetary tightening, shadow banks pass through more rate hikes to depositors, thereby poaching yield-sensitive deposits from commercial banks. Fitting my model to institution-level data from commercial banks and money market funds, I show that shadow money creation offsets 35 cents of each dollar in commercial bank deposit reductions, significantly dampening the impact of monetary tightening. My results suggest that monetary tightening may unintentionally drive more deposits into the uninsured shadow banking sector, thereby amplifying the risk of bank runs.

Suggested Citation

  • Kairong Xiao, 2018. "Monetary Transmission through Shadow Banks," 2018 Meeting Papers 616, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed018:616
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://economicdynamics.org/meetpapers/2018/paper_616.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Reynaert, Mathias & Verboven, Frank, 2014. "Improving the performance of random coefficients demand models: The role of optimal instruments," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 179(1), pages 83-98.
    2. Andrea Ajello & Thomas Laubach & David López-Salido & Taisuke Nakata, 2019. "Financial Stability and Optimal Interest Rate Policy," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 15(1), pages 279-326, March.
    3. Borio, Claudio & Zhu, Haibin, 2012. "Capital regulation, risk-taking and monetary policy: A missing link in the transmission mechanism?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 236-251.
    4. Buchak, Greg & Matvos, Gregor & Piskorski, Tomasz & Seru, Amit, 2018. "Fintech, regulatory arbitrage, and the rise of shadow banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 130(3), pages 453-483.
    5. Jeremy C. Stein & Anil K. Kashyap, 2000. "What Do a Million Observations on Banks Say about the Transmission of Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 407-428, June.
    6. Calomiris, Charles W. & Himmelberg, Charles P. & Wachtel, Paul, 1995. "Commercial paper, corporate finance, and the business cycle: a microeconomic perspective," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 203-250, June.
    7. Kashyap, Anil K & Stein, Jeremy C & Wilcox, David W, 1993. "Monetary Policy and Credit Conditions: Evidence from the Composition of External Finance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 78-98, March.
    8. Dong Beom Choi & Hyun-Soo Choi, 2021. "The Effect of Monetary Policy on Bank Wholesale Funding," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 67(1), pages 388-416, January.
    9. Kelvin J. Lancaster, 1966. "A New Approach to Consumer Theory," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74, pages 132-132.
    10. Ho, Katherine & Ishii, Joy, 2011. "Location and competition in retail banking," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 537-546, September.
    11. Benjamin Nelson & Gabor Pinter & Konstantinos Theodoridis, 2018. "Do contractionary monetary policy shocks expand shadow banking?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 33(2), pages 198-211, March.
    12. Pedro Teles & Ruilin Zhou, 2005. "A stable money demand: Looking for the right monetary aggregate," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, vol. 29(Q I), pages 50-63.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Albertazzi, Ugo & Barbiero, Francesca & Marqués-Ibáñez, David & Popov, Alexander & Rodriguez d’Acri, Costanza & Vlassopoulos, Thomas, 2020. "Monetary policy and bank stability: the analytical toolbox reviewed," Working Paper Series 2377, European Central Bank.
    2. Aguirregabiria, Victor & Clark, Robert & Wang, Hui, 2019. "The Geographic Flow of Bank Funding and Access to Credit: Branch Networks, Local Synergies, and Competition," CEPR Discussion Papers 13741, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Greg Buchak & Gregor Matvos & Tomasz Piskorski & Amit Seru, 2018. "Beyond the Balance Sheet Model of Banking: Implications for Bank Regulation and Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 25149, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Drechsler, Itamar & Savov, Alexi & Schnabl, Philipp, 2019. "How Monetary Policy Shaped the Housing Boom," CEPR Discussion Papers 14252, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Kent Daniel & Lorenzo Garlappi & Kairong Xiao, 2018. "Monetary Policy and Reaching for Income," NBER Working Papers 25344, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Istiak, Khandokar, 2019. "The nature of shadow bank leverage shocks on the macroeconomy," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C).
    7. Itamar Drechsler & Alexi Savov & Philipp Schnabl, 2019. "How Monetary Policy Shaped the Housing Boom," NBER Working Papers 25649, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Stijn Claessens & M Ayhan Kose, 2018. "Frontiers of macrofinancial linkages," BIS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 95.
    2. Christopher F Baum & Mustafa Caglayan & Neslihan Ozkan, 2004. "The second moments matter: The response of bank lending behavior to macroeconomic uncertainty," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 172, Society for Computational Economics.
    3. Okoro E.U. Okoro & Charles O. Manasseh & Felicia C. Abada & Williams A. Nzidee & Ambrose C. Okeke & Josaphat U.J. Onwumere, 2018. "Financial Intermediation and Monetary Policy Effectiveness in Nigeria," International Review of Management and Marketing, Econjournals, vol. 8(6), pages 53-61.
    4. Yener Altunbas & Leonardo Gambacorta & David Marques-Ibanez, 2014. "Does Monetary Policy Affect Bank Risk?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 10(1), pages 95-136, March.
    5. Mustafa Caglayan & Neslihan Ozkan & Christopher F Baum, 2002. "The Impact of Macroeconomic Uncertainty on Bank Lending Behavior," Working Papers 2002_02, University of Liverpool, Department of Economics.
    6. Aiyar, Shekhar & Calomiris, Charles W. & Wieladek, Tomasz, 2016. "How does credit supply respond to monetary policy and bank minimum capital requirements?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 142-165.
    7. Simona Mateut, 2005. "Trade Credit and Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 655-670, September.
    8. Gabriel Barros Tavares Peixoto & Gabriel Caldas Montes, 2014. "Risk-Taking Channel, Bank Lendingchannel And The “Paradox Of Credibility”: Empirical Evidence For Brazil," Anais do XL Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 40th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 030, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    9. Jugnu Ansari & Saibal Ghosh, 2021. "Monetary Policy Pass-through, Ownership and Crisis: How Robust is the Indian Evidence?," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 15(4), pages 456-483, November.
    10. Altunbas, Yener & Gambacorta, Leonardo & Marques-Ibanez, David, 2010. "Bank risk and monetary policy," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 121-129, September.
    11. Kandrac, John, 2012. "Monetary policy and bank lending to small firms," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 741-748.
    12. David López-Salido & Jeremy C. Stein & Egon Zakrajšek, 2017. "Credit-Market Sentiment and the Business Cycle," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 132(3), pages 1373-1426.
    13. Guender, Alfred V, 2018. "Credit prices vs. credit quantities as predictors of economic activity in Europe: Which tell a better story?," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 380-399.
    14. Baum, Christopher F. & Caglayan, Mustafa & Ozkan, Neslihan, 2009. "The second moments matter: The impact of macroeconomic uncertainty on the allocation of loanable funds," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 102(2), pages 87-89, February.
    15. Smant, David / D.J.C., 2002. "Bank credit in the transmission of monetary policy: A critical review of the issues and evidence," MPRA Paper 19816, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Melchisedek Joslem Ngambou Djatche, 2020. "Monetary Policy, Prudential Policy, and Bank's Risk-Taking: A Literature Review," GREDEG Working Papers 2020-40, Groupe de REcherche en Droit, Economie, Gestion (GREDEG CNRS), Université Côte d'Azur, France.
    17. Kairong Xiao & Francesca Cornelli, 2020. "Monetary Transmission through Shadow Banks [Securitization without risk transfer]," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 33(6), pages 2379-2420.
    18. Ekin Ayse Ozsuca & Elif Akbostanci, 2012. "An Empirical Analysis of the Risk Taking Channel of Monetary Policy in Turkey," ERC Working Papers 1208, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Dec 2012.
    19. Ozan Güler & Mike Mariathasan & Klaas Mulier & Nejat G. Okatan, 2021. "The real effects of banks' corporate credit supply: A literature review," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 59(3), pages 1252-1285, July.
    20. Luigi Oddo & Mile Bosnjak, 2021. "A comparative analysis of the monetary policy transmission channels in the U.S: a wavelet-based approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(38), pages 4448-4463, August.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:red:sed018:616. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/sedddea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Christian Zimmermann (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/sedddea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.