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Location and competition in retail banking


  • Ho, Katherine
  • Ishii, Joy


We investigate the impact of banking deregulation during the 1990s on consumer welfare. We estimate a spatial model of consumer demand for retail bank deposits that explicitly accounts for consumer disutility from distance traveled. This is important given the substantial changes in banks' branch networks observed in the data. Our model indicates that cross-price elasticities between banks whose branches are close to consumers ('close' banks) are larger than those between 'far' banks and more than double the cross-price elasticity of 'close' banks with respect to 'far' banks. We distinguish between thrifts and other banks and find that within-thrift competitive effects are stronger than within-bank effects or those between thrifts and banks. We use our estimates to predict the effect of changes in market structure on consumer welfare following the branching deregulation of the Riegle-Neal Act of 1994. Our results indicate that the median household gained around $60 per year from the changes. Approximately two thirds of the gains come from within-market changes in market structure. The gains were greater in markets with high initial numbers of banks than elsewhere.

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  • Ho, Katherine & Ishii, Joy, 2011. "Location and competition in retail banking," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 537-546, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:29:y:2011:i:5:p:537-546

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Huysentruyt, Marieke & Lefevere, Eva & Menon, Carlo, 2013. "Dynamics of retail-bank branching in Antwerp (Belgium) 1991–2006: Evidence from micro-geographic data," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 291-304.
    2. Pierre C. Boyer & Hubert Kempf, 2016. "Regulatory arbitrage and the efficiency of banking regulation," BAFFI CAREFIN Working Papers 1618, BAFFI CAREFIN, Centre for Applied Research on International Markets Banking Finance and Regulation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    3. M. Girotti & R. Meade, 2017. "U.S. Savings Banks' Demutualization and Depositor Welfare," Working papers 639, Banque de France.
    4. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2013. "Competition in bank-provided payment services," Working Paper Series 1539, European Central Bank.
    5. Temesvary, Judit, 2015. "Dynamic branching and interest rate competition of commercial banks: Evidence from Hungary," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 98-110.
    6. Chun‐Yu Ho, 2015. "Switching Cost And Deposit Demand In China," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 56, pages 723-749, August.
    7. Carlos Pérez Montes, 2013. "The impact of interbank and public debt markets on the competition for bank deposits," Working Papers 1319, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    8. Dai, Mian & Yuan, Yuan, 2013. "Product differentiation and efficiencies in the retail banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 4907-4919.
    9. Alfredo Martín Oliver & Sonia Ruano Pardo & Vicente Salas Fumás, 2014. "Productivity and welfare: an application to the Spanish banking industry," Working Papers 1426, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    10. Victor Aguirregabiria & Gustavo Vicentini, 2006. "Dynamic Spatial Competition Between Multi-Store Firms," Working Papers tecipa-253, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
    11. Pierre C. Boyer & Hubert Kempf, 2017. "Regulatory arbitrage and the e ciency of banking regulation," Working Papers 2017-06, Center for Research in Economics and Statistics.
    12. Pérez Montes, Carlos, 2014. "The effect on competition of banking sector consolidation following the financial crisis of 2008," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 124-136.


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