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Trade regimes and Gatt: resource intensive vs. knowledge intensive growth, Chapter 10

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  • Chichilnisky, Graciela

Abstract

Trading blocks can help or hinder the liberalization of world trade. A determining factor is whether trade within the block is organized around traditional comparative advantages, or around economies of scale. Regional free trade agreements such as NAFTA can be a substitutes for global free trade when they are based on traditional comparative advantages; then each regional market develops market power and incentives to impose tariffs on the rest of the world. Alternatively, regional trade agreements can be complementary to global free trade. This occurs when the blocks are organized around the exploitation of economies of scale and based on knowledge-intensive sectors. I establish that external economies of scale produce incentives for expanded trade; they can defeat the standard arguments for "optimal tariffs" and mitigate another negative feature of trading blocks: their tendency to divert trade from efficient to inefficient sources. The emergence of regional blocks organized around economies of scale can therefore lead to increasingly open international markets. I discuss policy implications for the EU and for free trade in the Americas.

Suggested Citation

  • Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1996. "Trade regimes and Gatt: resource intensive vs. knowledge intensive growth, Chapter 10," MPRA Paper 8813, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:8813
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/8813/1/MPRA_paper_8813.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Global Environment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 851-874, September.
    2. Raymond RIEZMAN, 2013. "Customs Unions and the Core," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: International Trade Agreements and Political Economy, chapter 3, pages 33-43 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Chichilnisky,Graciela & Heal,Geoffrey M., 2005. "The Evolving International Economy," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521310017, December.
    4. Lloyd A. Metzler, 1949. "Tariffs, the Terms of Trade, and the Distribution of National Income," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57, pages 1-1.
    5. John Kennan & Raymond Riezman, 2013. "Do Big Countries Win Tariff Wars?," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: International Trade Agreements and Political Economy, chapter 4, pages 45-51 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1981. "Terms of trade and domestic distribution : Export-led growth with abundant labour," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 163-192, April.
    7. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1992. "Strategies for trade liberalization in the Americas," Sede de la CEPAL en Santiago (Estudios e Investigaciones) 33919, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
    8. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1993. "North-South trade and the dynamics of renewable resources," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 219-248, December.
    9. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1986. "A general equilibrium theory of North-South trade," MPRA Paper 8810, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. John Kennan & Raymond Riezman, 2013. "Optimal Tariff Equilibria with Customs Unions," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: International Trade Agreements and Political Economy, chapter 5, pages 53-66 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Lübcke, Britta & Piazolo, Daniel, 1998. "Wohlfahrtseffekte einer nordatlantischen Handelsliberalisierung," Kiel Working Papers 885, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    free trade; comparative advantage; economies of scale; external economies of scale; knowledge-intensive sectors; knowledge revolution; regional trade agreements; NAFTA; EU; Gatt; trade blocks;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F53 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies

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