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Determining Environmental Quality in a Federal Setting: An Empirical Analysis of Subnational Governments in India


  • Chakraborty, Lekha S


Against the analytical backdrop of environmental federalism, the paper examines the impact of fiscally decentralized public policy stance on environmental quality in India. Unlike many studies which analysed the fiscally decentralized determination of environmental welfare from tax-side through modeling interjurisdictional competition and ‘race to bottom’, this paper attempts to look at the link from public expenditure side in a Kuznets’ U specification. The paper does not refute the widely explored Kuznets U phenomenon between economic growth and the environmental quality, rather it emphasizes that it does substantially through conscious public policies on reforestation and pollution abatement with adequate public expenditure decisions. Using GSLS and fixed effects model of pooled least squares for the late 1990s, the analysis of the link between decentralized environmental expenditure in per capita terms and the environmental quality indicators for the forestry sector revealed that there is a positive functional relationship between the variables. The models also revealed the effectiveness of economic growth variables in creating the Kuznet’s U effect on environmental quality. However, the panel estimates showed that fiscal policy has a stronger impact on environmental quality than the Kuznets U-impact of economic growth. This result is in confirmation with the trend that fiscal policies on environmental capital formation gets transformed to the end results of better environmental quality indicators, despite the constraints of initial negative impacts of economic growth on ecology.

Suggested Citation

  • Chakraborty, Lekha S, 2006. "Determining Environmental Quality in a Federal Setting: An Empirical Analysis of Subnational Governments in India," MPRA Paper 7605, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:7605

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Suri, Vivek & Chapman, Duane, 1998. "Economic growth, trade and energy: implications for the environmental Kuznets curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 195-208, May.
    2. Mandal, Subrata & M. Govinda Rao, 2005. "Overlapping fiscal domains and effectiveness of environmental policy in India," Working Papers 05/25, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    3. Daniel L. Millimet, 2003. "Assessing the Empirical Impact of Environmental Federalism," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 711-733.
    4. Oates, Wallace, 2001. "A Reconsideration of Environmental Federalism," Discussion Papers dp-01-54, Resources For the Future.
    5. Oates, Wallace E. & Schwab, Robert M., 1988. "Economic competition among jurisdictions: efficiency enhancing or distortion inducing?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 333-354, April.
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    More about this item


    environmental federalism; fiscally decentralized public policy stance; Kuznets’ U specification;

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models


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