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Urbanization and Environmental Quality in Africa

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  • Effiong, Ekpeno

Abstract

Africa’s rapid urbanization pose challenges for her sustainable development. This paper investigates the environmental impact of urbanization for 49 African countries from 1990 to 2010. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, a recently developed semi-parametric panel fixed-effects regression technique, and two atmospheric air pollutants, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) and ambient particulate matter PM10 emissions, the evidence indicates that urbanization reduces environmental pollution. The semi-parametric analysis reveals that the result is more pronounced with PM10 but weaker for CO2 emissions. Moreover, there is no evidence to confirm the Kuznets hypothesis of an inverted U-shaped curve between urbanization and environmental pollution. To reap the benefits of urbanization, there is need for a strategic urban planning with basic infrastructure investment that promotes a green environment.

Suggested Citation

  • Effiong, Ekpeno, 2016. "Urbanization and Environmental Quality in Africa," MPRA Paper 73224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:73224
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Zhu, Hui-Ming & You, Wan-Hai & Zeng, Zhao-fa, 2012. "Urbanization and CO2 emissions: A semi-parametric panel data analysis," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 848-850.
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    3. York, Richard & Rosa, Eugene A. & Dietz, Thomas, 2003. "STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 351-365, October.
    4. Liddle, Brantley & Lung, Sidney, 2010. "Age-Structure, Urbanization, and Climate Change in Developed Countries: Revisiting STIRPAT for Disaggregated Population and Consumption-Related Environmental Impacts," MPRA Paper 59579, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    7. Matthew A. Cole & Eric Neumayer, 2003. "Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors On Air Pollution," Labor and Demography 0312005, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 13 May 2004.
    8. Karen Ehrhardt‐Martinez & Edward M. Crenshaw & J. Craig Jenkins, 2002. "Deforestation and the Environmental Kuznets Curve: A Cross‐National Investigation of Intervening Mechanisms," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 83(1), pages 226-243, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chimere O. Iheonu & Ogochukwu C. Anyanwu & Obinna K. Odo & Solomon Prince Nathaniel, 2021. "Does Economic Growth, International Trade and Urbanization uphold Environmental Sustainability in sub-Saharan Africa? Insights from Quantile and Causality Procedures," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 21/003, African Governance and Development Institute..
    2. Oruj Gasimli & Ihtisham ul Haq & Sisira Kumara Naradda Gamage & Fadi Shihadeh & Prasanna Sisira Kumara Rajapakshe & Muhammad Shafiq, 2019. "Energy, Trade, Urbanization and Environmental Degradation Nexus in Sri Lanka: Bounds Testing Approach," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(9), pages 1-16, April.
    3. Asongu, Simplice & Agboola, Mary & Alola, Andrew & Bekun, Festus, 2019. "The criticality of growth, urbanization, electricity and fossil fuel consumption to environment sustainability in Africa," MPRA Paper 102056, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Chimere O. Iheonu & Ogochukwu C. Anyanwu & Obinna K. Odo & Solomon Prince Nathaniel, 2021. "Does Economic Growth, International Trade and Urbanization uphold Environmental Sustainability in sub-Saharan Africa? Insights from Quantile and Causality Procedures," Working Papers 21/003, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Urbanization; Environmental Quality; STIRPAT; Semi-parametric method; Africa.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q20 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - General
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

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