IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/71112.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Impact of Income Inequality, Environmental Degradation and Globalization on Life Expectancy in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis

Author

Listed:
  • Ali, Amjad
  • Audi, Marc

Abstract

This study has investigated the impact of income inequality, globalization and environmental degradation on life expectancy in Pakistan. The study uses time series data for the period 1980-2015 for empirical analysis. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillip and Perron (PP) unit root tests are employed for examining the order of integration of the variables. Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach is used for investigating the cointegration among the variables of the model. For examining the causal relationship Granger Causality test is used. The results of the study reveal that income inequality and environmental degradation have negative and significant impact on life expectancy in Pakistan. On the other hand globalization have positive and significant impact on life expectancy in Pakistan. The results of Granger causality show that there is unidirectional causality running from all independent variables to dependent variable.

Suggested Citation

  • Ali, Amjad & Audi, Marc, 2016. "The Impact of Income Inequality, Environmental Degradation and Globalization on Life Expectancy in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 71112, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:71112
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/71112/1/MPRA_paper_71112.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. anonymous, 1995. "Does the bouncing ball lead to economic growth?," Regional Update, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Jul, pages 1-2,4-6.
    2. Angus Deaton, 2003. "Health, Inequality, and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(1), pages 113-158, March.
    3. Robert J. Barro, 2013. "Inflation and Economic Growth," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 14(1), pages 121-144, May.
    4. Xavier Sala-I-Martin, 1997. "Transfers, Social Safety Nets, and Economic Growth," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 44(1), pages 81-102, March.
    5. Ali, Amjad & Ahmad, Khalil, 2014. "The Impact of Socio-Economic Factors on Life Expectancy for Sultanate of Oman: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 82500, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2014.
    6. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    7. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    8. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
    9. James W. Shaw & William C. Horrace & Ronald J. Vogel, 2005. "The Determinants of Life Expectancy: An Analysis of the OECD Health Data," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 768-783, April.
    10. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
    11. Grossman, Michael, 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 80(2), pages 223-255, March-Apr.
    12. Richard Auster & Irving Leveson & Deborah Sarachek, 1969. "The Production of Health, an Exploratory Study," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 4(4), pages 411-436.
    13. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    14. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
    15. Mahfuz Kabir, 2008. "Determinants of life expectancy in developing countries," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 41(2), January-M.
    16. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
    17. Michelle A. Mendez & Barry M. Popkin, 2004. "Globalization, Urbanization and Nutritional Change in the Developing World," The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, vol. 1(2), pages 220-241.
    18. Babones, Salvatore J., 2008. "Income inequality and population health: Correlation and causality," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 66(7), pages 1614-1626, April.
    19. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    20. Perron, Pierre, 1997. "Further evidence on breaking trend functions in macroeconomic variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 355-385, October.
    21. Mayer, Susan E. & Sarin, Ankur, 2005. "Some mechanisms linking economic inequality and infant mortality," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 439-455, February.
    22. Stroup, Michael D., 2007. "Economic Freedom, Democracy, and the Quality of Life," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 52-66, January.
    23. Davies, James B. & Kuhn, Peter, 1992. "Social security, longevity, and moral hazard," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 91-106, October.
    24. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
    25. Stephen Leybourne & Paul Newbold, 2003. "Spurious rejections by cointegration tests induced by structural breaks," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(9), pages 1117-1121.
    26. Nelson, Charles R. & Plosser, Charles I., 1982. "Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series : Some evidence and implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 139-162.
    27. Ann L. Owen & Stephen Wu, 2007. "Is Trade Good for Your Health?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(4), pages 660-682, September.
    28. Bussmann, Margit, 2009. "The Effect of Trade Openness on Women's Welfare and Work Life," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1027-1038, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Asif Sajid & Amjad Ali, 2018. "Inclusive Growth and Macroeconomic Situations in South Asia: An Empirical Analysis," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 7(3), pages 97-109, September.
    2. Kouni, Mohamed, 2016. "Medical Brain Drain and Life Expectancy: A Comparative Analysis between Arab, American and Asian Countries," MPRA Paper 78321, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. ŞENTÜRK, İsmail & Ali, Amjad, 2019. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Gender Specific Life Expectancy in Turkey: A Time Series Analysis," MPRA Paper 97815, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Fiaz Ahmad Sulehri & Muhammad Zahid Naeem, 2018. "The Role of Commercial Banks in Determining the Industrial Productivity in Pakistan:A Time Series Analysis," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 7(4), pages 185-196, December.
    5. Shaid Manzoor Shah & Amir Nazir, 2018. "Linkages between Food Security and Human Well Bing in South Asia: An Empirical Analysis," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 7(4), pages 197-207, December.
    6. Audi, Marc & Ali, Amjad, 2018. "Determinants of Environmental Degradation under the Perspective of Globalization: A Panel Analysis of Selected MENA Nations," MPRA Paper 85776, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Bibi, Chan & Audi, Marc & Ali, Amjad, 2017. "The Impact of Gender Inequality and Environmental Degradation on Human Well-Being in The Case of Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis," MPRA Paper 83470, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Nazish Tehseen & Sheraz Ali Khan, 2017. "Fuel Demand Elasticities for Energy and Environmental Policies: Evidence from Household Data in Pakistan," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 6(3), pages 117-129, September.
    9. Ali, Amjad & Şenturk, İsmail, 2019. "Justifying the Impact of Economic Deprivation, Maternal Status and Health infrastructure on Under-Five Child Mortality in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 96055, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Ali, Amjad & Audi, Marc, 2019. "Economic Misery, Urbanization and Life Expectancy in MENA Nations: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 93459, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Kassem, Mohamad & Ali, Amjad & Audi, Marc, 2019. "Unemployment Rate, Population Density and Crime Rate in Punjab (Pakistan): An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 95964, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Audi, Marc & Ali, Amjad, 2016. "Socio-Economic Status and Life Expectancy in Lebanon: An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 72900, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    life expectancy; income inequality; environmental degradation and globalization;

    JEL classification:

    • D33 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Factor Income Distribution
    • F6 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization
    • J17 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Value of Life; Foregone Income
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:71112. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.