IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/59461.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

In-depth Study of the Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India

Author

Listed:
  • Singh, K.M.
  • Meena, M.S.
  • Swanson, B.E.
  • Reddy, M.N.
  • Bahal, R.

Abstract

This In-Depth Study of the Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India is a full analysis of the pluralistic extension system in India, how it has changed over many years and the direction it is currently moving. Chapter-1 outlines the Evolution of the Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India and the changes that have occurred since about 1871, including the establishment of the Department of Agriculture in 1882. Following independence in 1947, many changes have happened as outlined in this first chapter, including the Community Development Program (CDP), the Intensive Agricultural District Program (IADP), including dissemination of high-yielding varieties during the Green Revolution, the Training and Visit (T&V) approach and then the move to the decentralized, farmer-led and market driven approach influenced by the Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) model. Chapter-2 gives an Overview of the Public Extension System within the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), the State Departments of Agriculture and then provides more detailed information about the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) and the public extension system in India. It starts with an overview of the organizational structure at the national level, including the Department of Agricultural Research and Extension (DARE), then into the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) and Directorate of Extension within DAC. Then, it moves into the KVKs, which are a critical linkage at the district level between research, extension and farmers. In short, KVKs focus on the specific agro-ecological conditions within each district and then, after conducting research on these different crops, livestock and other farming systems. Then it moves into the development of the ATMA model through two World Bank projects, which is now expand across all Indian districts. Chapter-3 outlines the Directorates of Extension Education within each State Agricultural Universities (SAUs). India is unique in having Extension units established within each SAU, since this extension approach was first introduced by selected US Land Grant Universities into these SAUs in the late 1950s and early 1960s. This chapter outlines the historical development of the extension within each SAU and then outlines the mandate, organizational structure, human resources and methods used within these SAUs and their relationship with the public extension system. Chapter-4 outlines the Private Sector Advisory Services being provided in India, especially in the provision of good advisory services through private Agri-Business Companies through the sale of inputs to farmers. In India, there are over 280,000 input supply firms, but many do not have sufficient knowledge and experience in providing good advisory services to farmers. At first, the public and private sector did not want to work together but through the ATMA approach, the public and private sector started working together and then, in 2004, the National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE) started training and giving diplomas to the participants from these private sector firms, especially in Andhra Pradesh (see: http://www.manage.gov.in/daesi/daesi.htm). Chapter-5 summarizes the role and activities of the different Commodity Boards currently operating in India, including: Central Silk Board (CSB), Coconut Development Board (CDB), Coffee Board, Coir Board, Rubber Board, Spices Board, Tea Board, Tobacco Board, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), National Horticulture Board (NHB), Cashew Export Promotion Council (CEPC), National Jute Board (NJB), and the National Federation of Cooperative Sugar Factories (NFCSF) and how each of these boards carry out extension and advisory services to the farmers being served. Chapter-6 outlines the Institutional Mechanism for Capacity Building to strengthen the pluralistic extension system in India. This chapter starts with an overview of the National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE), which is an autonomous organization that has had the most impact on strengthening the extension system in India. Next, it discusses the paradigm shift within the National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NAIM) in India; and then outlines the role of the Extension Education Institutes (EEIs). Finally, it moves to outline the role and structure of the State Agricultural Management and Extension Training Institutes (SAMETIs), especially in strengthening the ATMA model in India. Chapter-7 is the conclusion chapter that outlines the Strengths and Weaknesses of India’s Pluralistic Extension System. It starts by outlining the Policy Framework and Reforms for strengthening the pluralistic extension system in India. Next, it outlines how to strengthen research-extension linkages as well as capacity building among extension workers. Next, it addresses how to empower farmers, including women farmers. It also outlines the use of Information Technology (IT) and how to strengthen it through different approaches. This chapter also outlines the changing role of government in extension and how the ATMA model can be strengthened following very specific details. The other issue is how to strengthen the SAMETIs, since they still need to be strengthened in providing service to district and block level extension workers. This chapter ends with a brief summary the key role that the public extension system can play in India.

Suggested Citation

  • Singh, K.M. & Meena, M.S. & Swanson, B.E. & Reddy, M.N. & Bahal, R., 2014. "In-depth Study of the Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India," MPRA Paper 59461, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 23 Sep 2014.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:59461
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/59461/1/MPRA_paper_59461.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Singh, K.M. & Swanson, Burton E. & Jha, A.K. & Meena, M.S., 2012. "Extension Reforms and Innovations in Technology Dissemination- ATMA Model in India," MPRA Paper 48734, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Oct 2012.
    2. Raabe, Katharina, 2008. "Reforming the agricultural extension system in India: What do we know about what works where and why?," IFPRI discussion papers 775, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Birner, Regina & Anderson, Jock R., 2007. "How to make agricultural extension demand-driven?: The case of India's agricultural extension policy," IFPRI discussion papers 729, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Glendenning, Claire J. & Babu, Suresh & Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo, 2010. "Review of agricultural extension in India: Are farmers' information needs being met?," IFPRI discussion papers 1048, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Gershon Feder & Regina Birner & Jock R. Anderson, 2011. "The private sector's role in agricultural extension systems: potential and limitations," Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 31-54, June.
    6. Evenson, Robert E. & Pray, Carl E. & Rosegrant, Mark W., 1999. "Agricultural research and productivity growth in India:," Research reports 109, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Singh, K.M. & Meena, M.S. & Swanson, B.E., 2013. "Extension in India by Public Sector Institutions: An Overview," MPRA Paper 49107, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 16 Aug 2013.
    2. Meena, M.S. & Singh, K.M. & Swanson, B.E., 2013. "Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India: Innovations and Constraints," MPRA Paper 48324, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Jul 2013.
    3. Singh, K.M. & Meena, M.S. & Swanson, B.E., 2013. "Role of State Agricultural Universities and Directorates of Extension Education in Agricultural Extension in India," MPRA Paper 49108, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 16 Aug 2013.
    4. Apoorv Gupta & Jacopo Ponticelli & Andrea Tesei, 2019. "Technology Adoption and Access to Credit via Mobile Phones," Working Papers 892, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
    5. Babu, Suresh Chandra & Joshi, P.K. & Glendenning, Claire J. & Kwadwo, Asenso-Okyere & Rasheed, Sulaiman V., 2013. "The State of Agricultural Extension Reforms in India: Strategic Priorities and Policy Options," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 26(2).
    6. Mittal, Surabhi & Mehar, Mamta, 2012. "How Mobile Phones Contribute to Growth of Small Farmers? Evidence from India," Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, Humboldt-Universitaat zu Berlin, vol. 51(3), pages 1-18, August.
    7. Glendenning, Claire J. & Babu, Suresh & Asenso-Okyere, Kwadwo, 2010. "Review of agricultural extension in India: Are farmers' information needs being met?," IFPRI discussion papers 1048, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Joshi, P.K., 2015. "Has Indian Agriculture Become Crowded and Risky? Status, Implications and the Way Forward," Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Indian Society of Agricultural Economics, vol. 70(1).
    9. Glendenning, Claire J. & Babu, Suresh C, 2011. "Decentralization of public-sector agricultural extension in India: The case of the district-level Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA)," IFPRI discussion papers 1067, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    10. Ignacio Lozano-Espitia & Juan Camilo Restrepo Salazar, 2016. "El papel de la infraestructura rural en el desarrollo agrícola en Colombia," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, vol. 46(1), pages 107-147, June.
    11. Rada, Nicholas E., 2013. "Agricultural Growth in India: Examining the Post-Green Revolution Transition," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 149547, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    12. Cohen, Marc J. & Lemma, Mamusha, 2011. "Agricultural extension services and gender equality: An institutional analysis of four districts in Ethiopia," ESSP working papers 28, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    13. Goswami, Rupak & Paul, Malay, 2011. "Using Sustainable Livelihoods Framework for assessing the impact of Extension programmes: An empirical study in the context of Joint Forest Management," MPRA Paper 37793, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Mequaninte, Teferi & Birner, Regina & Mueller, Ulrike, 2015. "Adoption of Land Management Practices in Ethiopia: Which Network Types," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212631, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    15. Govil, Richa & Rana, Garima, 2017. "Demand for Agricultural Information among Women Farmers: A Survey from Karnataka, India," Review of Agrarian Studies, Foundation for Agrarian Studies, vol. 7(1), July.
    16. Shujat Ali, 2005. "Total Factor Productivity Growth and Agricultural Research and Extension: An Analysis of Pakistan's Agriculture, 1960-1996," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 729-746.
    17. Kiresur, V.R. & Melinamani, V.P., 2008. "Inter-Linkages Among Agricultural Research Investment, Agricultural Productivity and Rural Poverty in India," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44389, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    18. Singh, Nirvikar, 2015. "Punjab’s Agricultural Innovation Challenge," Santa Cruz Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt4716p3vr, Department of Economics, UC Santa Cruz.
    19. Kumar, Praduman & Mittal, Surabhi, 2006. "Agricultural Productivity Trends in India: Sustainability Issues," Agricultural Economics Research Review, Agricultural Economics Research Association (India), vol. 19(Conferenc).
    20. Surabhi Mittal, 2008. "Demand-Supply Trends and Projections of Food in India," Macroeconomics Working Papers 22228, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Indian Extension System; India; Pluralistic extension; ATMA Model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O2 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy
    • O3 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O32 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • Q16 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:59461. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Joachim Winter (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.