IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India: Innovations and Constraints


  • Meena, M.S.
  • Singh, K.M.
  • Swanson, B.E.


The major issues before Indian extension system are: how to improve the effectiveness of extension systems? How to serve the small land holders and marginal farmers in diversified farming systems? and proper allocation of fund, human resources and its management. The ATMA model has been successful in addressing many extension problems. Hence, the model should be introduced and implemented vigilantly. ATMAs should be empowered with sufficient administrative, financial and implementation flexibilities to reach the large numbers of small and marginal farmers. There is need of coordinated attempt to synergize and converge efforts at district and block levels to improve the performance of stakeholders. It is essential to route all the state and central government extension funds and human resources through a single agency, i.e. ATMA for effective utilization of crucial resources. The state governments should provide proper financial support by allocating at least 20% of states total budget to ATMA, which in turn distributes among state departments. The development grant provided by ICAR to SAUs and KVKs should be reviewed and adequately enhanced. Scaling up of FIGs/SHGs and Farmers Associations (FAs) could be an effective mechanism for empowerment and transfer of agricultural technologies. For serving the small communities efficiently, Information and Communication Technologies could be useful tools to increase connectivity between various FIGs/SHGs. It will also reduce extension cost and the workload of extension functionaries. There is need to learn from other actors like private sector, NGOs as they have much in-depth presence with various successful model.

Suggested Citation

  • Meena, M.S. & Singh, K.M. & Swanson, B.E., 2013. "Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India: Innovations and Constraints," MPRA Paper 48324, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Jul 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48324

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Singh, K.M. & Swanson, Burton E. & Jha, A.K. & Meena, M.S., 2012. "Extension Reforms and Innovations in Technology Dissemination- ATMA Model in India," MPRA Paper 48734, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Oct 2012.
    2. Birner, Regina & Anderson, Jock R., 2007. "How to make agricultural extension demand-driven?: The case of India's agricultural extension policy," IFPRI discussion papers 729, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Gershon Feder & Regina Birner & Jock R. Anderson, 2011. "The private sector's role in agricultural extension systems: potential and limitations," Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 31-54, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Singh, K.M. & Swanson, B.E. & Meena, M.S., 2013. "Reforming India’s Pluralistic Extension System: Some Policy Issues," MPRA Paper 48916, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Aug 2013.
    2. Singh, K.M. & Shekhar, Dibyanshu & Meena, M.S., 2015. "Modern Extension Approaches for Livelihood Improvement for Resource Poor Farmers," MPRA Paper 68414, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Dec 2015.

    More about this item


    Pluralistic extension system; innovations; constraints; Indian extension system;

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • Q16 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48324. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.