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Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India: Innovations and Constraints


  • Meena, M.S.
  • Singh, K.M.
  • Swanson, B.E.


The major issues before Indian extension system are: how to improve the effectiveness of extension systems? How to serve the small land holders and marginal farmers in diversified farming systems? and proper allocation of fund, human resources and its management. The ATMA model has been successful in addressing many extension problems. Hence, the model should be introduced and implemented vigilantly. ATMAs should be empowered with sufficient administrative, financial and implementation flexibilities to reach the large numbers of small and marginal farmers. There is need of coordinated attempt to synergize and converge efforts at district and block levels to improve the performance of stakeholders. It is essential to route all the state and central government extension funds and human resources through a single agency, i.e. ATMA for effective utilization of crucial resources. The state governments should provide proper financial support by allocating at least 20% of states total budget to ATMA, which in turn distributes among state departments. The development grant provided by ICAR to SAUs and KVKs should be reviewed and adequately enhanced. Scaling up of FIGs/SHGs and Farmers Associations (FAs) could be an effective mechanism for empowerment and transfer of agricultural technologies. For serving the small communities efficiently, Information and Communication Technologies could be useful tools to increase connectivity between various FIGs/SHGs. It will also reduce extension cost and the workload of extension functionaries. There is need to learn from other actors like private sector, NGOs as they have much in-depth presence with various successful model.

Suggested Citation

  • Meena, M.S. & Singh, K.M. & Swanson, B.E., 2013. "Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India: Innovations and Constraints," MPRA Paper 48324, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Jul 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48324

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Singh, K.M. & Swanson, Burton E. & Jha, A.K. & Meena, M.S., 2012. "Extension Reforms and Innovations in Technology Dissemination- ATMA Model in India," MPRA Paper 48734, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Oct 2012.
    2. Birner, Regina & Anderson, Jock R., 2007. "How to make agricultural extension demand-driven?: The case of India's agricultural extension policy," IFPRI discussion papers 729, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    3. Gershon Feder & Regina Birner & Jock R. Anderson, 2011. "The private sector's role in agricultural extension systems: potential and limitations," Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 31-54, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Singh, K.M. & Swanson, B.E. & Meena, M.S., 2013. "Reforming India’s Pluralistic Extension System: Some Policy Issues," MPRA Paper 48916, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Aug 2013.
    2. Singh, K.M. & Shekhar, Dibyanshu & Meena, M.S., 2015. "Modern Extension Approaches for Livelihood Improvement for Resource Poor Farmers," MPRA Paper 68414, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Dec 2015.

    More about this item


    Pluralistic extension system; innovations; constraints; Indian extension system;

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • Q16 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy

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