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Формиране На Човешкия Капитал През Комунизма: България
[Fostering Human Capital Accumulation during Communism: the Case of Bulgaria]


  • Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa


The question raised in the present paper is: What is the human capital during the communism and which are the key political and economic determinants of its formation during this period? Firstly, a measurement of the human capital is conducted on the basis of quantitative educational indicators. The empirical analysis suggests twelve new time series on human capital, which are consistent with the modern approaches of human capital measurement. Secondly, key political and economic determinants are identified following a survey on relevant documents in the State Archives and social science research from the period. We observe a considerable improvement in human capital stocks over the period. Significant changes occur at the end of 50s and during the 60s. Later, at the end of the 70s and during the 80s of 20th century we observe decline in participation in the educational ysytem. In the beginning of the transition to market economy about 60% of the population in Bulgaria has attained basic or lower educational level. In spite of the fact that during the whole period the government has been trying to provide favorable conditions for human capital formation, its policies fail to improve the educational structure of the population in the long run. We assume that an explanation of the phenomenon is the lack of economic incentives for the individuals to pursue higher education.

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  • Simeonova-Ganeva, Ralitsa, 2012. "Формиране На Човешкия Капитал През Комунизма: България
    [Fostering Human Capital Accumulation during Communism: the Case of Bulgaria]
    ," MPRA Paper 48105, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:48105

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kyriacou, George A., 1991. "Level and Growth Effects of Human Capital: A Cross-Country Study of the Convergence Hypothesis," Working Papers 91-26, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
    2. Costas Azariadis & Allan Drazen, 1990. "Threshold Externalities in Economic Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 501-526.
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    More about this item


    human capital; communism; determinants of human capital formation;

    JEL classification:

    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
    • I28 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Government Policy
    • P2 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies

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