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Salient features of social accounting matrix of Pakistan for 1989-90: Disaggregation of the households sector


  • Siddiqui, Rizwana
  • Iqbal, Zafar


This report compiles a latest social accounting matrix (SAM) of Pakistan for the year 1989-90. The SAM framework provides useful information about the structure of Pakistan’s economy. Within this framework, the preferred classifications of various accounts are undertaken according to the policy objectives and later model building. The SAM presents four types of accounts: factor account, institution account, production account, and capital account. Theses accounts are disaggregated on the basis of requirement and availability of data. The account of factors of production is disaggregated into labour and capital. Institution accounts consist of households, firms, government, and rest of the world. Household account is further disaggregated by four income categories for rural and urban areas. Production account is disaggregated into agriculture, industry, education, health and other sectors. Further disaggregation of production account is also made on the basis of goods for domestic market and for export market. Finally, it presents consolidated capital account. This study also aims to undertake a multiplier analysis, which provides backward and forward linkages in production, consumption, distribution, and accumulation accounts of the economy. The multipliers for all endogenous accounts imply a high degree of integration of the accounts. For the production sectors, backward linkages are strongest for the education, followed by agriculture, health, other sector and industry. The largest forward linkage multipliers are found for industry, followed by other sectors, agriculture, health and education. Regarding the households income groups, the largest backward linkage is found for the urban poorest and smallest for the rural rich. While, the largest forward linkage is for the rural poorest and smallest for the urban poorest.

Suggested Citation

  • Siddiqui, Rizwana & Iqbal, Zafar, 1999. "Salient features of social accounting matrix of Pakistan for 1989-90: Disaggregation of the households sector," MPRA Paper 4454, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4454

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pyatt, Graham, 1985. "Commodity Balances and National Accounts: A SAM Perspective," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 31(2), pages 155-169, June.
    2. James, Jeffrey & Khan, Haider A., 1993. "The employment effects of an income redistribution in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 817-827, May.
    3. Robinson, Sherman, 1989. "Multisectoral models," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 18, pages 885-947 Elsevier.
    4. Pyatt, F Graham & Round, Jeffery I, 1979. "Accounting and Fixed Price Multipliers in a Social Accounting Matrix Framework," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 89(356), pages 850-873, December.
    5. Mohammad Saleem & Tariq Mahmood & Nighat Parveen & Mohammad Ali Qasim, 1983. "P.I.D.E. Input-Output Table of Pakistan's Economy: 1975-76," PIDE-Working Papers 1983:139, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    6. Pyatt, Graham, 1991. "SAMs, the SNA and National Accounting Capabilities," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 37(2), pages 177-198, June.
    7. Iqbal, Z., 1996. "Three-gap analysis of structural adjustment in Pakistan," Other publications TiSEM aeeac5ac-5ac4-4069-a07e-2, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    8. Pyatt, Graham & Round, Jeffrey I, 1977. "Social Accounting Matrices for Development Planning," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 23(4), pages 339-364, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Zafar Iqbal & Rizwana Siddiqui, 1999. "Distributional Impact of Structural Adjustment on Income Inequality in Pakistan: A SAM-based Analysis," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 1999:02, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    2. Rizwana Siddiqui, 2004. "Modelling Gender Dimensions of the Impact of Economic Reforms on Time Allocation among Market Work,Household Work, and Leisure," PIDE-Working Papers 2004:185, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.

    More about this item


    SAM; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • D51 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Exchange and Production Economies
    • E2 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment
    • D33 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Factor Income Distribution


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