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Three-gap analysis of structural adjustment in Pakistan

Author

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  • Iqbal, Z.

    (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)

Abstract

This study addresses two specific sets of questions. The first main question that has occupied a number of researchers is whether the adjustment programs (advocated by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund) have had any positive effects to date on macroeconomic performance (i.e. on exports, imports, savings, investment, consumption, and gross domestic product) in Pakistan. The second main question posed here is whether and to what extent external factors aggravated the adjustment process. The purpose of this study has accordingly been to provide systematic quantitative evidence on these fundamental questions, using 1970 to 1993 as the period of observation. We use a three-gap framework to explore the contributions to macroeconomic performance of the adjustment policy reforms and external shocks. The individual and collective effects of adjustment policies and external shocks are measured through a number of simulation experiments. The central finding of the study is that in broad terms, the adjustment programs resulted in a substantial improvement in macroeconomic performance of Pakistan's economy. Furthermore, the adverse effects associated with external shocks appeared to have been severe during the adjustment process.

Suggested Citation

  • Iqbal, Z., 1996. "Three-gap analysis of structural adjustment in Pakistan," Other publications TiSEM aeeac5ac-5ac4-4069-a07e-2, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
  • Handle: RePEc:tiu:tiutis:aeeac5ac-5ac4-4069-a07e-2079c490c498
    Note: Dissertation
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    Cited by:

    1. Zafar Iqbal & Rizwana Siddiqui, 1999. "Distributional Impact of Structural Adjustment on Income Inequality in Pakistan: A SAM-based Analysis," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 1999:02, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    2. Zafar Iqbal & Rizwana Siddiqui, 1998. "The Impact of Structural Adjustment on Income Distribution in Pakistan A SAM-based Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 377-397.
    3. A. R. Kemal & Rehana Siddiqui & Rizwana Siddiqui, 2001. "Tariff Reduction and Income Distribution: A CGE-based Analysis for Urban and Rural Households in Pakistan," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 2001:11, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    4. Rizwana Siddiqui & Zafar Iqbal, 1999. "Salient Features of Social Accounting Matrix of Pakistan for 1989-90: Disaggregation of the Households Sector," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 1999:01, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    5. Siddiqui, Rizwana & Iqbal, Zafar, 1999. "TARIFF REDUCTION AND FUNCTIONAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN PAKISTAN: A CGE Analysis," MPRA Paper 6141, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Iqbal, Zafar & James, Jeffrey & Pyatt, Graham, 2000. "Three-Gap Analysis of Structural Adjustment in Pakistan," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 117-138, January.
    7. Thilak Ranaweera, 2004. "Ghost of the financing gap: an overlooked aspect of the aid debate," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(4), pages 637-652.
    8. Rizwana Siddiqui & Zafar Iqbal, 2001. "Tariff Reduction and Functional Income Distribution in Pakistan: A CGE Model," MIMAP Technical Paper Series 2001:10, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    9. Mohammad Akbar & Zareen F. Naqvi, 2001. "External Market Conditions, Competitiveness, Diversification, and Pakistan’s Export Performance," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 40(4), pages 871-884.
    10. Zafar Iqbal, 1997. "Foreign Aid and the Public Sector: A Model of Fiscal Behaviour in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(2), pages 115-129.

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