The Impact of Structural Adjustment on Income Distribution in Pakistan A SAM-based Analysis
Domestic poverty and income distribution are closely related to the state of the economy, which is linked with internal and external economic policies. Since 1988, under the rubric of structural adjustment programme (SAP), Pakistan has made use of fiscal, monetary and trade policies to correct her macro economic imbalances. It is hard to substantiate with proof that these programmes protect the poor. A number of studies have found that income distribution has been getting worse during the adjustment period in Pakistan.1 For example, Kemal (1994); Jaffery and Khattak (1995) and Anwar (1996) found that SAP accompanied with rising income inequality and poverty in Pakistan. But these studies are restricted as they did not employ an adequate methodology to assess the impact of structural adjustment reforms on income distribution.2 This paper, however, uses a simple static fixed-price SAM-based framework to analyse distributional outcome of incomes for rural and urban households. This methodology is useful because social accounting matrix (SAM) represents the whole economy and it does not need a large data set.
Volume (Year): 37 (1998)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: P.O.Box 1091, Islamabad-44000|
Web page: http://www.pide.org.pk
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Pyatt, F Graham & Round, Jeffery I, 1979. "Accounting and Fixed Price Multipliers in a Social Accounting Matrix Framework," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 89(356), pages 850-73, December.
- Pyatt, Graham, 1985. "Commodity Balances and National Accounts: A SAM Perspective," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 31(2), pages 155-69, June.
- Robert J. Barro, 1991.
"A Cross-Country Study of Growth, Saving, and Government,"
in: National Saving and Economic Performance, pages 271-304
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert J. Barro, 1989. "A Cross-Country Study of Growth, Saving, and Government," NBER Working Papers 2855, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- A.R. Kemal, 1994. "Structural Adjustment, Employment, Income Distribution and Poverty," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 901-914.
- Zafar Iqbal & Ghulam Mustafa Zahid, 1998. "Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(2), pages 125-148.
- Gary S. Becker & Kevin M. Murphy & Robert Tamura, 1994.
"Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth,"
in: Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education (3rd Edition), pages 323-350
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Gary S. Becker & Kevin M. Murphy & Robert Tamura, . "Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth," University of Chicago - Population Research Center 90-5a, Chicago - Population Research Center.
- Gary S. Becker & Kevin M. Murphy & Robert F. Tamura, 1990. "Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3414, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
- James, Jeffrey & Khan, Haider A., 1993.
"The employment effects of an income redistribution in developing countries,"
Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 817-827, May.
- James, M.J. & Khan, H.A., 1993. "The employment effects of an income redistribution in developing countries," Other publications TiSEM 4d5f3f30-82ec-4939-8341-1, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992.
"A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
- Iqbal, Z., 1996. "Three-gap analysis of structural adjustment in Pakistan," Other publications TiSEM aeeac5ac-5ac4-4069-a07e-2, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
- Pyatt, Graham & Round, Jeffrey I, 1977. "Social Accounting Matrices for Development Planning," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 23(4), pages 339-64, December.
- Tilat Anwar, 1996. "Structural Adjustment and Poverty: The Case of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 35(4), pages 911-926.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:37:y:1998:i:4:p:377-397. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.