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[Relationships among the Non-Genetically Modified Soybean and Energy Prices]


  • Aruga, Kentaka


In the United States, recently the use of soybeans as an energy source has drawn attention. It is concerned in Japan that if the use of soybeans for energy keeps increasing, not only the price of conventional soybeans, which is used for soybean oil, but also the price of non-genetically modified organism (Non-GMO) soybeans, which is consumed for food, will increase. This paper examines the price relationships between the non-GMO and conventional soybean prices, and energy prices such as those of crude oil and ethanol using the cointegration methods. The results suggest that the prices of the non-GMO and conventional soybeans do not have price relationships with those of the energy prices. This implies that the non-GMO and conventional soybean markets are not affected by the energy markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Aruga, Kentaka, 2011. "非遺伝子組換え大豆とエネルギーの価格関係について
    [Relationships among the Non-Genetically Modified Soybean and Energy Prices]
    ," MPRA Paper 38186, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Aug 2011.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:38186

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Thomas W. Hertel & Jayson Beckman, 2011. "Commodity Price Volatility in the Biofuel Era: An Examination of the Linkage between Energy and Agricultural Markets," NBER Chapters,in: The Intended and Unintended Effects of U.S. Agricultural and Biotechnology Policies, pages 189-221 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    3. Harri, Ardian & Nalley, Lanier & Hudson, Darren, 2009. "The Relationship between Oil, Exchange Rates, and Commodity Prices," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(02), pages 501-510, August.
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    5. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    6. Searchinger, Timothy & Heimlich, Ralph & Houghton, R. A. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Tokgoz, Simla & Hayes, Dermot J. & Yu, Hun-Hsiang, 2008. "Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12881, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    7. Hansen, Bruce E., 1992. "Efficient estimation and testing of cointegrating vectors in the presence of deterministic trends," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1-3), pages 87-121.
    8. Joshua D. Detre & Hiroki Uematsu & Ashok K. Mishra, 2011. "The influence of GM crop adoption on the profitability of farms operated by young and beginning farmers," Agricultural Finance Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 71(1), pages 41-61, May.
    9. Gohin, A. & Chantret, F., 2010. "The long-run impact of energy prices on world agricultural markets: The role of macro-economic linkages," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 333-339, January.
    10. Phillips, Peter C B & Ouliaris, S, 1990. "Asymptotic Properties of Residual Based Tests for Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 165-193, January.
    11. Kentaka Aruga, 2011. "Are the Tokyo Grain Exchange non-genetically modified organism (non-GMO) and conventional soybean futures markets integrated?," Agricultural Finance Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 71(1), pages 84-97, May.
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    More about this item


    non-GMO soybeans; conventional soybeans; crude oil; ethanol; cointegration;

    JEL classification:

    • Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General

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