Parallel imports, drug innovation and international patent protection: a policy game
We consider a policy game between a high-income country hosting a drug innovator and a low-income country hosting a drug imitator. The low-income country chooses whether to enforce an International Patent Regime (strict IPR) or not (weak IPR) and the high-income country chooses whether to allow parallel imports (PI) of on-patent drugs or market based discrimination (MBD). We show that, for a moderately high imitation cost, both (Strict IPR, PI) and (Weak IPR, MBD) emerge as the Subgame Perfect Nash Equilibrium (SPNE) policy choices. For relatively smaller imitation costs, (Weak IPR, MBD) is the unique SPNE policy choice. The welfare properties reveal that although innovation may be higher at the (Strict IPR, PI) policy regime, the market coverage and national welfare of the low-income country, and the total welfare are all lower. This opens up the efficiency issue of implementing TRIPS and at the same time allowing international exhaustion of patent rights.
|Date of creation:||2009|
|Date of revision:||2010|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Avner Shaked & John Sutton, 1982. "Relaxing Price Competition Through Product Differentiation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 49(1), pages 3-13.
- Rajat Acharyya & María D.C. García-Alonso, 2008. "Parallel Imports, Innovations And National Welfare: The Role Of The Sizes Of Income Classes And National Markets For Health Care," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 53(01), pages 57-79.
- Jaskold Gabszewicz, J. & Thisse, J. -F., 1979. "Price competition, quality and income disparities," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 340-359, June.
- Gilbert, R. & Shapiro, C., 1988.
"Optimal Patent Length And Breadth,"
28, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Discussion Paper.
- Lutz, Stefan, 1996.
"Vertical Product Differentiation and Entry Deterrence,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1455, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Stefan Lutz, 1997. "Vertical product differentiation and entry deterrence," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 65(1), pages 79-102, February.
- Lall, Sanjaya, 2003.
"Indicators of the relative importance of IPRs in developing countries,"
Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1657-1680, October.
- Sanjaya Lall and Manuel Albaladejo, . "Indicators of the Relative Importance of IPRs In Developing Countries," QEH Working Papers qehwps85, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
- Acharyya, Rajat, 2005. "Quality discrimination among income constrained consumers," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 245-251, February.
- Malueg, David A. & Schwartz, Marius, 1994.
"Parallel imports, demand dispersion, and international price discrimination,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 37(3-4), pages 167-195, November.
- Malueg, D.A. & Schwartz, M., 1993. "Parallel Imports, Demand Dispersion and International Price Discrimination," Papers 93-6, U.S. Department of Justice - Antitrust Division.
- Sohn, Soo Jeoung, 2008. "The Two Contrary Effects of Imitation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 75-82, January.
- Grossman, Gene & Lai, Edwin, 2006.
"Parallel Imports and Price Controls,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5779, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Donnenfeld, S. & Weber, S., 1991.
"Limit Qualities and Entry Deterrence,"
92-4, York (Canada) - Department of Economics.
- Shubham Chaudhuri & Pinelopi K. Goldberg & Panle Jia, 2003.
"Estimating the Effects of Global Patent Protection in Pharmaceuticals: A Case Study of Quinolones in India,"
NBER Working Papers
10159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Panle Gia & Pinelopi K. Goldberg & Shubham Chaudhuri, 2006. "Estimating the Effects of Global Patent Protection in Pharmaceuticals: A Case Study of Quinolones in India," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(5), pages 1477-1514, December.
- Shubham Chaudhuri & Pinelopi K. Goldberg & Panle Jia, 2006. "Estimating the Effects of Global Patent Protection in Pharmaceuticals: A Case Study of Quinolones in India," Working Papers id:772, eSocialSciences.
- Acharyya, Rajat & Garcia-Alonso, Maria D.C., 2006. "Self-interested international income redistribution and access to health care innovation," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 322-336, June.
- Richardson, Martin, 2002. "An elementary proposition concerning parallel imports," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 233-245, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:30159. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.