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Trade Between Euro Zone and Arab Countries: a Panel Study


  • Harb, Nasri


We construct an aggregate data panel to estimate price and income elasticities of the Arab countries imports from and exports to euro zone. We study the non-stationarity of our series and verify the cointegration hypothesis among the variables using Pedroni's heterogeneous panel cointegration tests (2004). The panel data circumvent the problem of short span sample and increase the power of the non stationarity tests. Then, we estimate the idiosyncratic and panel cointegrating vectors using DOLS (Kao and Chiang, 2000), FMOLS (Phillips and Hansen, 1990) and group-mean DOLS and FMOLS developed by Pedroni (2000, 2001). Our variables are shown to be cointegrated. Arab imports from Euro zone countries are income inelastic, but price elastic. Results of export function are not conclusive and depend on the used estimator.

Suggested Citation

  • Harb, Nasri, 2006. "Trade Between Euro Zone and Arab Countries: a Panel Study," MPRA Paper 13675, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:13675

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
    2. Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, 2004. "Some cautions on the use of panel methods for integrated series of macroeconomic data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(2), pages 322-340, December.
    3. Pedroni, Peter, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application To The Ppp Hypothesis," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(03), pages 597-625, June.
    4. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    5. Nasri Harb, 2004. "Money demand function: a heterogeneous panel application," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(9), pages 551-555.
    6. Peter Pedroni, 2000. "Fully Modified OLS for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels," Department of Economics Working Papers 2000-03, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    7. Carmen M. Reinhart, 1995. "Devaluation, Relative Prices, and International Trade: Evidence from Developing Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(2), pages 290-312, June.
    8. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    9. Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-670, Special I.
    10. Quah, Danny, 1994. "Exploiting cross-section variation for unit root inference in dynamic data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 44(1-2), pages 9-19.
    11. Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, 2005. "Testing for PPP: Should we use panel methods?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 77-91, January.
    12. Peter C. B. Phillips & Hyungsik R. Moon, 1999. "Linear Regression Limit Theory for Nonstationary Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(5), pages 1057-1112, September.
    13. Mouawiya Al-Awad & Nasri Harb, 2005. "Financial development and economic growth in the Middle East," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(15), pages 1041-1051.
    14. Alkhatib Alkswani, Mamdouh & Al-Towaijari, Hamad A., 1999. "Cointegration, Error Correction and the Demand for Money in Saudi Arabia," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 52(3), pages 299-308.
    15. Peter Pedroni, 2001. "Purchasing Power Parity Tests In Cointegrated Panels," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(4), pages 727-731, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. James J. Forest & Paul Turner, 2013. "Alternative estimators of cointegrating parameters in models with nonstationary data: an application to US export demand," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(5), pages 629-636, February.
    2. Chiu, Yi-Bin & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Sun, Chia-Hung, 2010. "The U.S. trade imbalance and real exchange rate: An application of the heterogeneous panel cointegration method," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 705-716, May.

    More about this item


    Imports; Exports; Time series; Panel Cointegration; DOLS; FMOLS;

    JEL classification:

    • F40 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - General
    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes


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