Firms' Accruals and Tobin’s q
According to the neoclassical theory of investment, if firms’ accruals are a form of short-term investment they should be greatly influenced by the shadow price of capital, namely Tobin’s q. In the presence of financial market imperfections, cash-flows should also impact accruals since they proxy for liquidity constraints. In this paper, we test a new version of the cash-flows augmented accrual model featuring a proxy for Tobin’s q, and compare it to the most common models found in the literature. To deal with the measurement errors often encountered in accounting data and Tobin’s q empirical proxies, we rely on a modified version of the Hausman artificial regression, and find that all the key parameters of the accrual models are indeed systematically biased with measurement errors. More importantly, our findings largely qualify the accrual investment perspective, as both cash-flows and Tobin’s q are found strongly significant regressors of firms’ accruals. Interestingly, we find that the Tobin’s q augmented model is able to isolate discretionary accruals, and to deliver residuals quite close to zero on average.
|Date of creation:||01 Nov 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Pavillon Lucien Brault, 101 rue Saint Jean-Bosco, Gatineau (Québec) J8Y 3G5|
Phone: (819) 595-3900
Fax: (819) 773-1747
Web page: http://www.repad.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Coen, Alain & Racicot, Francois-Eric, 2007. "Capital asset pricing models revisited: Evidence from errors in variables," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 95(3), pages 443-450, June.
- Brown, James R. & Petersen, Bruce C., 2009. "Why has the investment-cash flow sensitivity declined so sharply? Rising R&D and equity market developments," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 971-984, May.
- Hayashi, Fumio, 1982.
"Tobin's Marginal q and Average q: A Neoclassical Interpretation,"
Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 213-24, January.
- Fumio Hayashi, 1981. "Tobin's Marginal q and Average a : A Neoclassical Interpretation," Discussion Papers 457, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Leuz, Christian & Nanda, Dhananjay & Wysocki, Peter D., 2003. "Earnings management and investor protection: an international comparison," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 505-527, September.
- Hausman, Jerry, 2015.
"Specification tests in econometrics,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 38(2), pages 112-134.
- Jin (Ginger) Wu & Lu Zhang & X. Frank Zhang, 2010. "The "q"-Theory Approach to Understanding the Accrual Anomaly," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1), pages 177-223, 03.
- Paul Hribar, 2002. "Errors in Estimating Accruals: Implications for Empirical Research," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 105-134, 03.
- Wu, De-Min, 1973. "Alternative Tests of Independence Between Stochastic Regressors and Disturbances," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(4), pages 733-50, July.
- Roychowdhury, Sugata, 2006. "Earnings management through real activities manipulation," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 335-370, December.
- Erickson, Timothy & Whited, Toni M., 2002. "Two-Step Gmm Estimation Of The Errors-In-Variables Model Using High-Order Moments," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(03), pages 776-799, June.
- Simon Gilchrist & Charles P. Himmelberg, 1995.
"Evidence on the Role of Cash Flow for Investment,"
95-01, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Simon Gilchrist & Charles P. Himmelberg, 1993. "Evidence on the role of cash flow for investment," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 93-7, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Gilchrist, S. & Himmelberg, C.P., 1995. "Evidence on the Role of Cash Flow for Investment," Papers 95-29, Columbia - Graduate School of Business.
- François Degeorge & Jayendu Patel & Richard Zeckhauser, 1997.
"Earnings Management to Exceed Thresholds,"
- Hirshleifer, David & Hou, Kewei & Teoh, Siew Hong & Zhang, Yinglei, 2004.
"Do Investors Overvalue Firms with Bloated Balance Sheets?,"
Working Paper Series
2004-18, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
- Hirshleifer, David & Kewei Hou & Teoh, Siew Hong & Yinglei Zhang, 2004. "Do investors overvalue firms with bloated balance sheets?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 297-331, December.
- David Hirshleifer & KEWEI HOU & Siew Hong Teoh & YINGLEI ZHANG, 2004. "Do Investors Overvalue Firms With Bloated Balance Sheets?," Finance 0412001, EconWPA.
- Dagenais, Marcel G. & Dagenais, Denyse L., 1997. "Higher moment estimators for linear regression models with errors in the variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1-2), pages 193-221.
- Teoh, Siew Hong & Welch, Ivo & Wong, T. J., 1998. "Earnings management and the underperformance of seasoned equity offerings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 63-99, October.
- Larcker, David F. & Rusticus, Tjomme O., 2010. "On the use of instrumental variables in accounting research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 186-205, April.
- Kothari, S. P., 2001. "Capital markets research in accounting," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1-3), pages 105-231, September.
- Francis, Jennifer & LaFond, Ryan & Olsson, Per & Schipper, Katherine, 2005. "The market pricing of accruals quality," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 295-327, June.
- Steven Young, 1999. "Systematic Measurement Error in the Estimation of Discretionary Accruals: An Evaluation of Alternative Modelling Procedures," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(7&8), pages 833-862.
- Siew Hong Teoh & Ivo Welch & T.J. Wong, 1998. "Earnings Management and the Long-Run Market Performance of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 1935-1974, December.
- Steven Fazzari & R. Glenn Hubbard & Bruce C. Petersen, 1987.
"Financing Constraints and Corporate Investment,"
NBER Working Papers
2387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Arthur Lewbel, 1997. "Constructing Instruments for Regressions with Measurement Error when no Additional Data are Available, with an Application to Patents and R&D," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(5), pages 1201-1214, September.
- Hirshleifer, David & Hou, Kewei & Teoh, Siew Hong, 2009. "Accruals, cash flows, and aggregate stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 389-406, March.
- Pal, Manoranjan, 1980. "Consistent moment estimators of regression coefficients in the presence of errors in variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 349-364, December.
- Salma S. Ibrahim, 2009. "The Usefulness of Measures of Consistency of Discretionary Components of Accruals in the Detection of Earnings Management," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(9-10), pages 1087-1116.
- François-Éric Racicot & Raymond Théoret, 2012. "Optimally weighting higher-moment instruments to deal with measurement errors in financial return models," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(14), pages 1135-1146, July.
- Kothari, S.P. & Leone, Andrew J. & Wasley, Charles E., 2005. "Performance matched discretionary accrual measures," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 163-197, February.
- Olivier Jean Blanchard & Stanley Fischer, 1989. "Lectures on Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262022834, December.
- DeFond, Mark L. & Park, Chul W., 1997. "Smoothing income in anticipation of future earnings," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 115-139, July.
- Christian Calmès, 2004. "Financial Market Imperfections and Investment: an Overview," Finance 0409031, EconWPA.
- James R. Brown & Steven M. Fazzari & Bruce C. Petersen, 2009. "Financing Innovation and Growth: Cash Flow, External Equity, and the 1990s R&D Boom," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 151-185, 02.
- MacKinnon, James G, 1992. "Model Specification Tests and Artificial Regressions," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 102-46, March.
- Burgstahler, David & Dichev, Ilia, 1997. "Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 99-126, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pqs:wpaper:032012. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Christian Calmes)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.