IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

On the use of instrumental variables in accounting research

  • Larcker, David F.
  • Rusticus, Tjomme O.
Registered author(s):

    Instrumental variable (IV) methods are commonly used in accounting research (e.g., earnings management, corporate governance, executive compensation, and disclosure research) when the regressor variables are endogenous. While IV estimation is the standard textbook solution to mitigating endogeneity problems, the appropriateness of IV methods in typical accounting research settings is not obvious. Drawing on recent advances in statistics and econometrics, we identify conditions under which IV methods are preferred to OLS estimates and propose a series of tests for research studies employing IV methods. We illustrate these ideas by examining the relation between corporate disclosure and the cost of capital.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V87-4XSTD07-2/2/8b249a5b8d8d363ee5d7b7b098ac0540
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Accounting and Economics.

    Volume (Year): 49 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 3 (April)
    Pages: 186-205

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:jaecon:v:49:y:2010:i:3:p:186-205
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jae

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Rajgopal, Shivaram & Shevlin, Terry, 2002. "Empirical evidence on the relation between stock option compensation and risk taking," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 145-171, June.
    2. DiPrete, Thomas A. & Gangl, Markus, 2004. "Assessing bias in the estimation of causal effects: Rosenbaum bounds on matching estimators and instrumental variables estimation with imperfect instruments," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Labor Market Policy and Employment SP I 2004-101, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    3. Alastair R. Hall & Glenn D. Rudebusch & David W. Wilcox, 1994. "Judging instrument relevance in instrumental variables estimation," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 94-3, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Richard Lambert & Christian Leuz & Robert E. Verrecchia, 2007. "Accounting Information, Disclosure, and the Cost of Capital," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(2), pages 385-420, 05.
    5. Hunt, Alister & Moyer, Susan E. & Shevlin, Terry, 1996. "Managing interacting accounting measures to meet multiple objectives: A study of LIFO firms," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 339-374, June.
    6. Hausman, Jerry A, 1978. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
    7. Russell Lundholm, 2002. "Bringing the Future Forward: The Effect of Disclosure on the Returns-Earnings Relation," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(3), pages 809-839, 06.
    8. Nelson, C. & Startz, R., 1988. "The Distribution Of The Instrumental Variables Estimator And Its T-Ratio When The Instrument Is A Poor One," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 88-07, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
    9. Nelson, C.R. & Startz, R. & Zivot, E., 1996. "Valid Confidence Intervals and Inference in the Presence of Weak Instruments," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 96-15, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
    10. Heckman, James J, 1978. "Dummy Endogenous Variables in a Simultaneous Equation System," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(4), pages 931-59, July.
    11. Scott Keating, A., 1997. "Determinants of divisional performance evaluation practices," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 243-273, December.
    12. Bushee, Brian J. & Matsumoto, Dawn A. & Miller, Gregory S., 2003. "Open versus closed conference calls: the determinants and effects of broadening access to disclosure," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-3), pages 149-180, January.
    13. Ball, Ray & Shivakumar, Lakshmanan, 2005. "Earnings quality in UK private firms: comparative loss recognition timeliness," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 83-128, February.
    14. Mark L. DeFond, 2002. "Do Non-Audit Service Fees Impair Auditor Independence? Evidence from Going Concern Audit Opinions," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 1247-1274, 09.
    15. Joshua D. Angrist & Alan B. Krueger, 1990. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," NBER Working Papers 3572, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1994. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," NBER Technical Working Papers 0151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Luzi Hail, 2002. "The impact of voluntary corporate disclosures on the ex-ante cost of capital for Swiss firms," European Accounting Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(4), pages 741-773.
    18. In-Mu Haw & Bingbing Hu & Lee-Seok Hwang & Woody Wu, 2004. "Ultimate Ownership, Income Management, and Legal and Extra-Legal Institutions," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 423-462, 05.
    19. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    20. Shivaram Rajgopal & Mohan Venkatachalam & Suresh Kotha, 2003. "The Value Relevance of Network Advantages: The Case of E-Commerce Firms," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(1), pages 135-162, 03.
    21. Ole-Kristian Hope, 2003. "Disclosure Practices, Enforcement of Accounting Standards, and Analysts' Forecast Accuracy: An International Study," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 235-272, 05.
    22. Barton, Jan & Waymire, Gregory, 2004. "Investor protection under unregulated financial reporting," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 65-116, December.
    23. Darren T. Roulstone, 2003. "The Relation Between Insider-Trading Restrictions and Executive Compensation," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(3), pages 525-551, 06.
    24. Masako Darrough & Srinivasan Rangan, 2005. "Do Insiders Manipulate Earnings When They Sell Their Shares in an Initial Public Offering?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(1), pages 1-33, 03.
    25. Brown, Stephen & Hillegeist, Stephen A. & Lo, Kin, 2004. "Conference calls and information asymmetry," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 343-366, September.
    26. Mark H. Lang & Karl V. Lins & Darius P. Miller, 2004. "Concentrated Control, Analyst Following, and Valuation: Do Analysts Matter Most When Investors Are Protected Least?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 589-623, 06.
    27. Anderson, Ronald C. & Mansi, Sattar A. & Reeb, David M., 2004. "Board characteristics, accounting report integrity, and the cost of debt," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 315-342, September.
    28. Nelson, Charles R & Startz, Richard, 1990. "Some Further Results on the Exact Small Sample Properties of the Instrumental Variable Estimator," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(4), pages 967-76, July.
    29. Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2000. "The Craft of labormetrics," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 53(3), pages 363-380, April.
    30. Joseph Weber & Michael Willenborg, 2003. "Do Expert Informational Intermediaries Add Value? Evidence from Auditors in Microcap Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(4), pages 681-720, 09.
    31. Mary Margaret Frank, 2002. "The Impact of Taxes on Corporate Defined Benefit Plan Asset Allocation," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 1163-1190, 09.
    32. Murphy, Kevin J., 2000. "Performance standards in incentive contracts," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 245-278, December.
    33. Holthausen, Robert W. & Larcker, David F. & Sloan, Richard G., 1995. "Business unit innovation and the structure of executive compensation," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 279-313, April.
    34. Steven M. Shugan, 2004. "Endogeneity in Marketing Decision Models," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(1), pages 1-3.
    35. Aboody, David, 1996. "Market valuation of employee stock options," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1-3), pages 357-391, October.
    36. Jeffrey L. Callen & Ole-Kristian Hope & Dan Segal, 2005. "Domestic and Foreign Earnings, Stock Return Variability, and the Impact of Investor Sophistication," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(3), pages 377-412, 06.
    37. Jeffrey Ng & Tjomme O. Rusticus & Rodrigo S. Verdi, 2008. "Implications of Transaction Costs for the Post-Earnings Announcement Drift," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 661-696, 06.
    38. Jinyong Hahn & Jerry Hausman, 2003. "Weak Instruments: Diagnosis and Cures in Empirical Econometrics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 118-125, May.
    39. Hanlon, Michelle & Rajgopal, Shivaram & Shevlin, Terry, 2003. "Are executive stock options associated with future earnings?," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-3), pages 3-43, December.
    40. Christine A. Botosan, 2002. "A Re-examination of Disclosure Level and the Expected Cost of Equity Capital," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 21-40, 03.
    41. Kothari, S. P. & Zimmerman, Jerold L., 1995. "Price and return models," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 155-192, September.
    42. Godfrey, L. G. & Hutton, J. P., 1994. "Discriminating between errors-in- variables/simultaneity and misspecification in linear regression models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 359-364, April.
    43. Scott Whisenant & Srinivasan Sankaraguruswamy & K. Raghunandan, 2003. "Evidence on the Joint Determination of Audit and Non-Audit Fees," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(4), pages 721-744, 09.
    44. Stock, James H & Wright, Jonathan H & Yogo, Motohiro, 2002. "A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(4), pages 518-29, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jaecon:v:49:y:2010:i:3:p:186-205. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.