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Why are Boys Falling Behind Girls in Schooling?

Listed author(s):
  • Edita E. Tan


    (School of Economics, University of the Philippines Diliman)

  • Kristine S. Canales

    (PCED-Institute to Study Inequality, Poverty, and Social Protection)

  • Kevin G. Cruz

    (School of Economics, University of the Philippines Diliman)

  • Jan Carlo B. Punongbayan

    (PCED-Institute to Study Inequality, Poverty, and Social Protection)

Registered author(s):

    The paper tries to explain why women in the Philippines, as yet a low middle income country, obtain higher levels of education than boys. Four empirically based reasons are posited – the substantial expansion of the education system, the growth of job opportunities, the culture that encourages girls to develop better study habits and the high returns to their education. Empirical evidence is provided to support these contentions especially on the returns to women’s schooling. The study concentrates in estimating by various methods returns to schooling using individual observations from the labor force survey. The more conventional OLS regressions are first applied to allow comparison with many studies and the semi-parametric estimates. But the semi-parametric additive method had to be used in order to check for specification robustness of the model due to the observed violation of the OLS assumption of normal distribution of error terms. The quantile regression was also applied to reflect the income distribution implications of the returns pattern. An additional insight into the returns estimation is given by the inclusion of the effect of being married and marrying well, i.e., whether the spouses are equally or upward matched in education, or not. We find that returns to education are higher the higher the level of education is and that returns to women’s education are higher than returns to men’s education. Moreover, being married and married well increase earnings. Additionally, there is a fairly high good matching between education classes, i.e., there is substantial intermarriage among college graduates and other college educated and among lower educated individuals. This implies poor social mobility considering that access to education especially at the higher levels is very much constrained by family resources. Intermarriage between college graduates preserves their high social position since access to education is restricted by income. The paper concludes with a list of social issues that emerge from the findings.

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    Paper provided by University of the Philippines School of Economics in its series UP School of Economics Discussion Papers with number 201112.

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    Length: 41 pages
    Date of creation: Nov 2011
    Publication status: Published as UPSE Discussion Paper No. 2011-12, November 2011
    Handle: RePEc:phs:dpaper:201112
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    Diliman, Quezon City 1101

    Phone: 927-9686
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    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

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    1. Behrman, Jere & Birdsall, Nancy & Deolalikar, Anil, 1995. "Marriage Markets, Labor Markets, and Unobserved Human Capital: An Empirical Exploration for South-Central India," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 43(3), pages 585-601, April.
    2. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
    3. Christopher Dougherty, 2005. "Why Are the Returns to Schooling Higher for Women than for Men?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(4), pages 969-988.
    4. Lawrence Dacuycuy, 2006. "Explaining male wage inequality in the Philippines: non-parametric and semiparametric approaches," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(21), pages 2497-2511.
    5. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:3:y:2005:i:37:p:1-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Miles, Daniel & Mora, Juan, 2003. "On the performance of nonparametric specification tests in regression models," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 477-490, March.
    7. Lawrence Dacuycuy, 2005. "Is the earnings-schooling relationship linear? a semiparametric analysis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(37), pages 1-8.
    8. Murat Nick & P. Randall Walsh, 2007. "Building the Family Nest: Premarital Investments, Marriage Markets, and Spousal Allocations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(2), pages 507-535.
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