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Virtual water and water trade in Andalusia. A study by means of an input-output model


  • Erik Dietzenbacher

    () (Faculty of Economics, University of Groningen)

  • Esther Velázquez

    () (Department of Economics, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)


Andalusian agricultural sectors are relatively small, but consume by 90% of the available water resources. More than 50% of the final demands for agricultural products are exported to other Spanish regions or abroad. Using a virtual water concept with an input-output framework, we find that a substantial part of the Andalusian water consumption is necessary for exports. Considering the water content of its trade, Andalusia is found to be a net exporter of water, whereas it is an extremely arid region. Examining regional policy aspects, a reduction in the exports abroad of agricultural products yields considerable benefits in terms of water savings and only moderate costs.

Suggested Citation

  • Erik Dietzenbacher & Esther Velázquez, 2006. "Virtual water and water trade in Andalusia. A study by means of an input-output model," Working Papers 06.06, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pab:wpaper:06.06

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Machado, Giovani & Schaeffer, Roberto & Worrell, Ernst, 2001. "Energy and carbon embodied in the international trade of Brazil: an input-output approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 409-424, December.
    2. Kainuma, M. & Matsuoka, Y. & Morita, T., 2000. "Estimation of embodied CO2 emissions by general equilibrium model," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 392-404, April.
    3. Velazquez, Esther, 2006. "An input-output model of water consumption: Analysing intersectoral water relationships in Andalusia," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 226-240, February.
    4. Muradian, Roldan & O'Connor, Martin & Martinez-Alier, Joan, 2002. "Embodied pollution in trade: estimating the 'environmental load displacement' of industrialised countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 51-67, April.
    5. Munksgaard, Jesper & Pedersen, Klaus Alsted, 2001. "CO2 accounts for open economies: producer or consumer responsibility?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 327-334, March.
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    More about this item


    Input-Output Models; Virtual Water; Trade and Sustainability;

    JEL classification:

    • R15 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Econometric and Input-Output Models; Other Methods
    • Q25 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Water
    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade

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