Has China Displaced the Outward Investments of OECD Countries?
As China has rapidly emerged as one of the world’s largest investors abroad, there has been a hectic debate in the literature on whether its emergence as a major foreign investor may have undermined the importance of western industrialised economies, including those in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This paper aims to investigate whether this is the case. The study uses a panel dataset covering 155 countries, including 33 in the OECD, where China had invested during 2003-09. This is by far the most comprehensive dataset of China’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI). A two-stage least squared (TSLS) regression approach is adopted for our econometric models according to an established augmented gravity model in the literature. The empirical results show clear evidence that China’s OFDI displaces that of the OECD countries, but the argument that China’s emergence is a ‘new colonialism’ is not supported as OECD countries’ OFDI in resource abundant host countries, particularly that in Africa and Latin America, does not appear to have been displaced by China’s OFDI.
|Date of creation:|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: School of Economics University of Nottingham University Park Nottingham NG7 2RD|
Phone: (44) 0115 951 5620
Fax: (0115) 951 4159
Web page: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/gep/index.aspx
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michael W. Klein & Eric S. Rosengren, 1992.
"The real exchange rate and foreign direct investment in the United States: relative wealth vs. relative wage effects,"
92-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
- Klein, Michael W. & Rosengren, Eric, 1994. "The real exchange rate and foreign direct investment in the United States : Relative wealth vs. relative wage effects," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3-4), pages 373-389, May.
- Michael W. Klein & Eric Rosengren, 1992. "The Real Exchange Rate and Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: Relative Wealth vs. Relative Wage Effects," NBER Working Papers 4192, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kang Park, 2003. "Patterns and strategies of Foreign Direct Investment: the case of Japanese firms," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(16), pages 1739-1746.
- Mihir A. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & Kristin J. Forbes, 2004. "Financial Constraints and Growth: Multinational and Local Firm Responses to Currency Crises," NBER Working Papers 10545, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anderson, James E, 1979. "A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 106-16, March.
- Yin-Wong Cheung & Xingwang Qian, 2009.
"The Empirics of China's Outward Direct Investment,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
2621, CESifo Group Munich.
- Georges SIOTIS, 1996.
"Foreign Direct Investment Strategies and Firms' Capabilities,"
Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP)
9626, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
- Georges Siotis, 1999. "Foreign Direct Investment Strategies and Firms' Capabilities," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 8(2), pages 251-270, 06.
- Yin‐Wong Cheung & Jakob de Haan & Xingwang Qian & Shu Yu, 2012.
"China's Outward Direct Investment in Africa,"
Review of International Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 201-220, 05.
- Goldberg, Linda S. & Kolstad, Charles D., 1994.
"Foreign Direct Investment, Exchange Rate Variability and Demand Uncertainty,"
94-23, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Goldberg, Linda S & Kolstad, Charles D, 1995. "Foreign Direct Investment, Exchange Rate Variability and Demand Uncertainty," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(4), pages 855-73, November.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Charles D. Kolstad, 1994. "Foreign Direct Investment, Exchange Rate Variability and Demand Uncertainty," NBER Working Papers 4815, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Henrik Braconier & Pehr-Johan Norback & Dieter Urban, 2002.
"Vertical FDI Reviseted,"
Development Working Papers
167, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 1998.
"On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation,"
NBER Working Papers
6529, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 2002. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(2), pages 281-316, April.
- Evenett, S. J. & Keller, W., 1994. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," Working papers 9713, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 1996. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," International Trade 9608001, EconWPA, revised 13 Jun 1997.
- Fosfuri, Andrea & Motta, Massimo, 1999. " Multinationals without Advantages," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 101(4), pages 617-30, December.
- Lane, P, 1999.
"International Investment Positions: A Cross-Sectional Analysis,"
Trinity Economics Papers
995, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
- Lane, Philip R., 2000. "International investment positions: a cross-sectional analysis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 513-534, August.
- Ivar Kolstad & Arne Wiig, 2009. "What determines Chinese outward FDI?," CMI Working Papers 3, CMI (Chr. Michelsen Institute), Bergen, Norway.
- Barry Eichengreen & Yeongseop Rhee & Hui Tong, 2007. "China and the Exports of Other Asian Countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 143(2), pages 201-226, July.
- Child, John & Rodrigues, Suzana B., 2005. "The Internationalization of Chinese Firms: A Case for Theoretical Extension?," Management and Organization Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(03), pages 381-410, November.
- Buckley, Peter J & Casson, Mark, 1981. "The Optimal Timing of a Foreign Direct Investment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(361), pages 75-87, March.
- Cushman, David O, 1985. "Real Exchange Rate Risk, Expectations, and the Level of Direct Investment," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(2), pages 297-308, May.
- Noorbakhsh, Farhad & Paloni, Alberto & Youssef, Ali, 2001. "Human Capital and FDI Inflows to Developing Countries: New Empirical Evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(9), pages 1593-1610, September.
- Daniel H. Rosen & Thilo Hanemann, 2009. "China's Changing Outbound Foreign Direct Investment Profile: Drivers and Policy Implications," Policy Briefs PB09-14, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
- David Hummels & James Levinsohn, 1993.
"Monopolistic Competition and International Trade: Reconsidering the Evidence,"
NBER Working Papers
4389, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Hummels & James Levinsohn, 1995. "Monopolistic Competition and International Trade: Reconsidering the Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(3), pages 799-836.
- Hummels, D. & Levinsohn, J., 1993. "Monopolistic Competition and International Trade: Reconsidering the Evidence," Working Papers 339, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Robert E. Lipsey, 2001. "Foreign Direct Investors in Three Financial Crises," NBER Working Papers 8084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- John H Dunning, 1998. "Location and the Multinational Enterprise: A Neglected Factor?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(1), pages 45-66, March.
- Peter J Buckley & L Jeremy Clegg & Adam R Cross & Xin Liu & Hinrich Voss & Ping Zheng, 2007. "The determinants of Chinese outward foreign direct investment," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(4), pages 499-518, July.
- Robert E. Lipsey, 1999. "The Location and Characteristics of U.S. Affiliates in Asia," NBER Working Papers 6876, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:not:notgep:12/10. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Hilary Hughes)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.