Wireless Carriers’ Exclusive Handset Arrangements: An Empirical Look at the iPhone
Since the Apple iPhone’s first launch in 2007 with an exclusive arrangement with AT&T, it has garnered overwhelmingly positive responses from consumers and from the media. With its success, exclusive contracts between handset makers and wireless carriers have come under increasing scrutiny by regulators and lawmakers. Such practices have been criticized by regulators, by the media, and by “locked-out” consumers, due to the fact that a consumer has to subscribe to a particular service provider if he or she strongly prefers one handset to others. In this paper, we empirically examine the impact of handset exclusivity arrangements on consumer welfare. First we study consumers’ purchase decisions in mobile services that include the choice of a handset and of a service provider. We do so by combining survey data on consumers’ purchase decisions with supplemented data on prices and features of common handsets. Next, assuming a Stackelberg leader-follower relationship between the handset manufacturers and the service providers, and using our demand estimates, we recover the marginal costs for the players in the market. We then simulate what would have happened in the counterfactual scenario when the iPhone is available from all carriers. Our results suggest that, if we take into account price adjustments from handset manufacturers and service providers in response to the change in market structure, consumer welfare will increase by $326 million without the exclusive arrangement. We view our analysis as a starting point to a more complete characterization of consumer behavior and the complex relationships among players in this industry.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2007.
"Vertical relationships between manufacturers and retailers: inference with limited data,"
Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series
qt6gz1t778, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Sofia Berto Villas-Boas, 2007. "Vertical Relationships between Manufacturers and Retailers: Inference with Limited Data," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(2), pages 625-652.
- Villas-Boas, Sofia B., 2006. "Vertical relationships between manufacturers and retailers: inference with limited data," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt0z26d2v9, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Xinlei (Jack) Chen & George John & Om Narasimhan, 2008. "Assessing the Consequences of a Channel Switch," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(3), pages 398-416, 05-06.
- Patrick Bajari & Jeremy T. Fox & Stephen Ryan, 2006.
"Evaluating Wireless Carrier Consolidation Using Semiparametric Demand Estimation,"
NBER Working Papers
12425, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Patrick Bajari & Jeremy Fox & Stephen Ryan, 2008. "Evaluating wireless carrier consolidation using semiparametric demand estimation," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 299-338, December.
- Iimi, Atsushi, 2005. "Estimating demand for cellular phone services in Japan," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 3-23, February.
- Anja Lambrecht & Katja Seim & Bernd Skiera, 2007. "Does Uncertainty Matter? Consumer Behavior Under Three-Part Tariffs," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 26(5), pages 698-710, 09-10.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:net:wpaper:1135. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Nicholas Economides)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.