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Risk Aversion and Optimal Portfolio Policies in Partial and General Equilibrium Economies

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  • Leonid Kogan
  • Raman Uppal

Abstract

In this article, we show how to analyze analytically the equilibrium policies and prices in an economy with a stochastic investment opportunity set and incomplete financial markets, when agents have power utility over both intermediate consumption and terminal wealth, and face portfolio constraints. The exact local comparative statics and approximate but analytical expression for the portfolio policy and asset prices are obtained by developing a method based on perturbation analysis to expand around the solution for an investor with log utility. We then use this method to study a general equilibrium exchange economy with multiple agents who differ in their degree of risk aversion and face borrowing constraints. We characterize explicitly the consumption and portfolio policies and also the properties of asset returns. We find that the volatility of stock returns increases with the cross-sectional dispersion of risk aversion, with the cross-sectional dispersion in portfolio holdings, and with the relaxation of the constraint on borrowing. Moreover, tightening the borrowing constraint lowers the risk-free interest rate and raises the equity premium in equilibrium.

Suggested Citation

  • Leonid Kogan & Raman Uppal, 2001. "Risk Aversion and Optimal Portfolio Policies in Partial and General Equilibrium Economies," NBER Working Papers 8609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8609
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    2. Najafi, Amir Abbas & Pourahmadi, Zahra, 2016. "An efficient heuristic method for dynamic portfolio selection problem under transaction costs and uncertain conditions," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 448(C), pages 154-162.
    3. Michael W. Brandt & Amit Goyal & Pedro Santa-Clara & Jonathan R. Stroud, 2005. "A Simulation Approach to Dynamic Portfolio Choice with an Application to Learning About Return Predictability," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(3), pages 831-873.
    4. Martin D. D. Evans & Viktoria Hnatkovska, 2005. "Solving General Equilibrium Models with Incomplete Markets and Many Assets," NBER Technical Working Papers 0318, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Antonio Mele, 2004. "General Properties of Rational Stock-Market Fluctuations," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 223, Econometric Society.
    6. Björn Bick & Holger Kraft & Claus Munk, 2013. "Solving Constrained Consumption-Investment Problems by Simulation of Artificial Market Strategies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 59(2), pages 485-503, June.
    7. Gollier Christian, 2004. "Optimal Dynamic Portfolio Risk with First-Order and Second-Order Predictability," The B.E. Journal of Theoretical Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 4(1), pages 1-35, September.
    8. Pavlova, Anna & Rigobon, Roberto, 2010. "An asset-pricing view of external adjustment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 144-156, January.
    9. Kasper Larsen & Oleksii Mostovyi & Gordan v{Z}itkovi'c, 2014. "An expansion in the model space in the context of utility maximization," Papers 1410.0946, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2016.
    10. Marco Bonomo & René Garcia & Nour Meddahi & Roméo Tédongap, 2011. "Generalized Disappointment Aversion, Long-run Volatility Risk, and Asset Prices," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(1), pages 82-122.
    11. Mao-Wei Hung & Hsiao-Yuan Yu, 2006. "A heterogeneous model of disposition effect," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(18), pages 2147-2157.
    12. Paolo Porchia & Pedro Gete, 2011. "Fertility and Consumption when Having a Child is a Risky Investment," 2011 Meeting Papers 563, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    13. Harjoat S. Bhamra & Raman Uppal, 2014. "Asset Prices with Heterogeneity in Preferences and Beliefs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 27(2), pages 519-580.
    14. Mao-Wei Hung & Mei-Lan Lo & Hsiao-Yuan Yu, 2010. "On the currency effect to home bias puzzle," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(8), pages 815-822.
    15. Ludvigson, Sydney C., 2013. "Advances in Consumption-Based Asset Pricing: Empirical Tests," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, in: G.M. Constantinides & M. Harris & R. M. Stulz (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Finance, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 799-906, Elsevier.
    16. Bhamra, Harjoat S. & Coeurdacier, Nicolas & Guibaud, Stéphane, 2014. "A dynamic equilibrium model of imperfectly integrated financial markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 490-542.
    17. Gollier, Christian, 2008. "Understanding saving and portfolio choices with predictable changes in assets returns," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(5-6), pages 445-458, April.
    18. Weinbaum, David, 2010. "Preference heterogeneity and asset prices: An exact solution," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2238-2246, September.
    19. Judd, Kenneth L. & Leisen, Dietmar P.J., 2010. "Equilibrium open interest," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 2578-2600, December.
    20. Leippold, Markus & Trojani, Fabio & Vanini, Paolo, 2006. "Equilibrium impact of value-at-risk regulation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1277-1313, August.
    21. Gollier, Christian, 2005. "Optimal Portfolio Management for Individual Pension Plans," IDEI Working Papers 298, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
    22. Das, Sanjiv Ranjan & Uppal, Raman, 2002. "Systemic Risk and International Portfolio Choice," CEPR Discussion Papers 3305, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    23. Farhi, Emmanuel & Panageas, Stavros, 2007. "Saving and investing for early retirement: A theoretical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 87-121, January.

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    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions

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