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Price Rigidities, Asymmetries, and Output Fluctuations

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  • Ricardo J. Caballero
  • Eduardo M.R.A. Engel

Abstract

In this paper we characterize the average response of output to aggregate demand shocks in an economy where individual firms follow state-dependent pricing rules. We find that: (i) the average response of output to aggregate demand shocks decreases with core inflation and varies non-monotonically with aggregate uncertainty, (ii) there is an asymmetry in the response of output to aggregate demand expansions and contractions, which increases with core inflation and decreases with aggregate uncertainty, and (iii) this asymmetry also rises with the degree of asymmetry of aggregate demand shocks. Using annual data from 37 moderate-low inflation countries for the period 1960-1982, we find support for the basic implications of the model.

Suggested Citation

  • Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M.R.A. Engel, 1992. "Price Rigidities, Asymmetries, and Output Fluctuations," NBER Working Papers 4091, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4091
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    1. Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M. R. A. Engel, 1993. "Microeconomic Adjustment Hazards and Aggregate Dynamics," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 108(2), pages 359-383.
    2. Ball, Laurence & Mankiw, N Gregory, 1994. "Asymmetric Price Adjustment and Economic Fluctuations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(423), pages 247-261, March.
    3. Blanchard, Olivier Jean, 1990. "Why does money affect output? A survey," Handbook of Monetary Economics,in: B. M. Friedman & F. H. Hahn (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 15, pages 779-835 Elsevier.
    4. James Peery Cover, 1992. "Asymmetric Effects of Positive and Negative Money-Supply Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(4), pages 1261-1282.
    5. Robert J. Barro, 1972. "A Theory of Monopolistic Price Adjustment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(1), pages 17-26.
    6. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1973. "Some International Evidence on Output-Inflation Tradeoffs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(3), pages 326-334, June.
    7. Andrew Caplin & John Leahy, 1991. "State-Dependent Pricing and the Dynamics of Money and Output," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(3), pages 683-708.
    8. Caballero, Ricardo J & Engel, Eduardo M R A, 1991. "Dynamic (S, s) Economies," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1659-1686, November.
    9. Daniel Tsiddon, 1993. "The (Mis)Behaviour of the Aggregate Price Level," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(4), pages 889-902.
    10. Eytan Sheshinski & Yoram Weiss, 1983. "Optimum Pricing Policy under Stochastic Inflation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(3), pages 513-529.
    11. Ricardo J. Caballero & Eduardo M. R. A. Engel, 1993. "Heterogeneity and Output Fluctuations in a Dynamic Menu-Cost Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(1), pages 95-119.
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    Cited by:

    1. Caballero, Ricardo J. & Engel, Eduardo M. R. A., 1993. "Microeconomic rigidities and aggregate price dynamics," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 697-711, May.
    2. RenÈ Garcia, 2002. "Are the Effects of Monetary Policy Asymmetric?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 40(1), pages 102-119, January.
    3. S. Fabiani & M. Druant & I. Hernando & C. Kwapil & B. Landau & C. Loupias & F. Martins & T. Mathä & R. Sabbatini & H. Stahl & A. Stokman, 2005. "The pricing behaviour of firms in the euro area : new survey evidence," Working Paper Research 76, National Bank of Belgium.
    4. Juan J. Dolado & Ramón María-Dolores, 2001. "An empirical study of the cyclical effects of monetary policy in Spain (1977-1997)," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 25(1), pages 3-30, January.
    5. Rhee, Wooheon & Rich, Robert W., 1995. "Inflation and the asymmetric effects of money on output fluctuations," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 683-702.
    6. Georgios Karras & Houston Stokes, 1999. "On the asymmetric effects of money-supply shocks: international evidence from a panel of OECD countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(2), pages 227-235.
    7. Rotemberg, Julio J., 1996. "Prices, output, and hours: An empirical analysis based on a sticky price model," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 505-533, June.
    8. Marco Bonomo & René Garcia, 2001. "The macroeconomic effects of infrequent information with adjustment costs," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(1), pages 18-35, February.
    9. repec:sbe:breart:v:20:y:2000:i:1:a:2774 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Christian Bayer, 2001. "Aggregate investment dynamics when firms face fixed investment cost and capital market imperfections," Discussion Papers in Economics 01_13, University of Dortmund, Department of Economics.
    11. Silvia Fabiani & Martine Druant & Ignacio Hernando & Claudia Kwapil & Bettina Landau & Claire Loupias & Fernando Martins & Thomas Mathä & Roberto Sabbatini & Harald Stahl & Ad Stokman, 2006. "What Firms' Surveys Tell Us about Price-Setting Behavior in the Euro Area," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 2(3), September.
    12. Almeida, Heitor & Bonomo, Marco, 2002. "Optimal state-dependent rules, credibility, and inflation inertia," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1317-1336, October.
    13. Bonomo, Marco, 2000. "Are One-Sided S,s Rules Useful Proxies For Optimal Pricing Rules?," Brazilian Review of Econometrics, Sociedade Brasileira de Econometria - SBE, vol. 20(1), May.
    14. Kiley, Michael T, 2000. "Endogenous Price Stickiness and Business Cycle Persistence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 28-53, February.
    15. Erdinc Telatar & Mubariz Hasanov, 2006. "The asymmetric effects of monetary shocks: the case of Turkey," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(18), pages 2199-2208.
    16. Christian Melzer & Thorsten Neumann, 2005. "Changing Effects of Monetary Policy in the U.S. –Evidence from a Time-Varying Coefficient VAR," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005 144, Society for Computational Economics.
    17. Stevens, Philip Andrew, 2007. "Skill shortages and firms' employment behaviour," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 231-249, April.
    18. Karras, Georgios & Stokes, Houston H., 1999. "Why are the effects of money-supply shocks asymmetric? Evidence from prices, consumption, and investment," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 713-727.
    19. Carlos Borondo, 1994. "La rigidez nominal de los precios de la Nueva Economía Keynesiana: una panorámica," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 18(2), pages 245-288, May.
    20. Ramon Maria-Dolores, "undated". "Asymmetries in the Cyclical Effects of Monetary Policy on Output: Some European Evidence," Working Papers on International Economics and Finance 02-04, FEDEA.
    21. Annette Detken, 2002. "Nonlinearities in Swiss macroeconomic data," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 138(I), pages 39-60, March.
    22. Florian Hoppner & Christian Melzer & Thorsten Neumann, 2008. "Changing effects of monetary policy in the US-evidence from a time-varying coefficient VAR," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(18), pages 2353-2360.
    23. Saki Bigio & Jorge Salas, 2006. "Non-Linear Effects of Monetary Policy and Real Exchange Rate Shocks in Partially Dollarized Economies: An Empirical Study for Peru," Working Papers 2006-008, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.

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