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Measuring and Changing Control: Women’s Empowerment and Targeted Transfers

Author

Listed:
  • Ingvild Almås
  • Alex Armand
  • Orazio Attanasio
  • Pedro Carneiro

Abstract

This paper studies how targeted cash transfers to women affect their empowerment. We use a novel identification strategy to measure women's willingness to pay to receive cash transfers instead of their partner receiving it. We apply this among women living in poor households in urban Macedonia. We match experimental data with a unique policy intervention (CCT) in Macedonia offering poor households cash transfers conditional on having their children attending secondary school. The program randomized whether the transfer was offered to household heads or mothers at municipality level, providing us with an exogenous source of variation in (offered) transfers. We show that women who were offered the transfer reveal a lower willingness to pay, and we show that this is in line with theoretical predictions.

Suggested Citation

  • Ingvild Almås & Alex Armand & Orazio Attanasio & Pedro Carneiro, 2015. "Measuring and Changing Control: Women’s Empowerment and Targeted Transfers," NBER Working Papers 21717, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:21717
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Esther Duflo, 2012. "Women Empowerment and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 50(4), pages 1051-1079, December.
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    1. repec:aea:aecrev:v:107:y:2017:i:5:p:1-26 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. repec:eee:wdevel:v:95:y:2017:i:c:p:55-72 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Farah Said, 2016. "Access to Finance and Agency: An Overview of the Constraints to Female-Run Enterprises," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 21(Special E), pages 331-349, September.
    4. Margherita Calderone, 2017. "Are there different spillover effects from cash transfers to men and women? Impacts on investments in education in post-war Uganda," WIDER Working Paper Series 093, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. Seymour, Gregory & Peterman, Amber, 2017. "Understanding the measurement of women’s autonomy: Illustrations from Bangladesh and Ghana," IFPRI discussion papers 1656, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    6. Diana Lopez-Avila, 2016. "Measuring Women's Empowerment: lessons to better understand domestic violence," PSE Working Papers halshs-01294565, HAL.
    7. Gurven, Michael & Hopfensitz, Astrid & Kaplan, Hillard & Stieglitz, Jonathan, 2016. "Why household inefficiency? An experimental approach to assess spousal resource distribution preferences in a subsistence population undergoing socioeconomic change," TSE Working Papers 16-670, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    8. Esther Duflo, 2017. "The Economist as Plumber," NBER Working Papers 23213, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Nathan Fiala, 2017. "Business is Tough, but Family is Worse: Household Bargaining and Investment in Microenterprises in Uganda," Working papers 2017-05, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    10. Bonilla, Juan & Zarzur, Rosa Castro & Handa, Sudhanshu & Nowlin, Claire & Peterman, Amber & Ring, Hannah & Seidenfeld, David, 2017. "Cash for Women’s Empowerment? A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Government of Zambia’s Child Grant Program," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 55-72.
    11. Duflo, Esther, 2017. "The Economist as Plumber," CEPR Discussion Papers 11881, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Baranov, Victoria & Bhalotra, Sonia R. & Biroli, Pietro & Maselko, Joanna, 2017. "Maternal Depression, Women’s Empowerment, and Parental Investment: Evidence from a Large Randomized Control Trial," IZA Discussion Papers 11187, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Miguel Ángel Borrella Mas & Mariano Bosch Mossi & Marcello Sartarelli, 2016. "Non-Contributory Pensions Number-Gender Effects on Poverty and Household Decisions," Working Papers. Serie AD 2016-02, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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