IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/15134.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

A Bargain at Twice the Price? California Hospital Prices in the New Millennium

Author

Listed:
  • Yaa Akosa Antwi
  • Martin Gaynor
  • William B. Vogt

Abstract

We use data from California to document and offer possible explanations for the sharp increase in hospital prices charged to private payers after 1999. We find a downward trend in price for private pay patients in the 1990s and a rapid upward trend beginning in 1999, amounting to an annual average increase of 10.6% per year over 1999-2005. Prices in 2006 were almost double prices in 1999. By contrast, there was little discernable trend in prices for Medicare and Medicaid patients, although these prices varied from year-to-year. Surprisingly, the increase in prices is not correlated, geographically, with the change in hospital market concentration. For example, the greatest price rises came from hospitals in monopoly and highly concentrated counties which experienced little or no change over our sample period. Two recent California state hospital regulations, the seismic retrofit mandate and the mandatory nurse staffing ratio affected hospital costs. However, the cost increases due to the nursing staffing regulations are not large enough to account for the price increase, and the price increase is not substantially correlated with the costs of compliance with the seismic retrofit mandate. Therefore, the source of the near-doubling of California hospital prices remains something of a mystery.

Suggested Citation

  • Yaa Akosa Antwi & Martin Gaynor & William B. Vogt, 2009. "A Bargain at Twice the Price? California Hospital Prices in the New Millennium," NBER Working Papers 15134, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15134
    Note: EH
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w15134.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Keeler, Emmett B. & Melnick, Glenn & Zwanziger, Jack, 1999. "The changing effects of competition on non-profit and for-profit hospital pricing behavior," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 69-86, January.
    2. repec:mpr:mprres:3871 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Melnick, Glenn & Keeler, Emmett, 2007. "The effects of multi-hospital systems on hospital prices," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 400-413, March.
    4. Daniel P. Kessler & Mark B. McClellan, 2000. "Is Hospital Competition Socially Wasteful?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(2), pages 577-615.
    5. Gaynor, Martin & Vogt, William B, 2003. "Competition among Hospitals," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(4), pages 764-785, Winter.
    6. John Simpson & Richard Shin, 1998. "Do Nonprofit Hospitals Exercise Market Power?," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(2), pages 141-157.
    7. Daniel P. Kessler & Jeffrey J. Geppert, 2005. "The Effects of Competition on Variation in the Quality and Cost of Medical Care," NBER Working Papers 11226, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Duggan, Mark, 2004. "Does contracting out increase the efficiency of government programs? Evidence from Medicaid HMOs," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(12), pages 2549-2572, December.
    9. Ho, Vivian & Hamilton, Barton H., 2000. "Hospital mergers and acquisitions: does market consolidation harm patients?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 767-791, September.
    10. Yu-Chu Shen & Vivian Wu & Glenn Melnick, 2008. "The Changing Effect of HMO Market Structure: An Analysis of Penetration, Concentration, and Ownership Between 1994-2005," NBER Working Papers 13775, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Daniel P. Kessler & Jeffrey J. Geppert, 2005. "The Effects of Competition on Variation in the Quality and Cost of Medical Care," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(3), pages 575-589, September.
    12. Dranove, David & Lindrooth, Richard & White, William D. & Zwanziger, Jack, 2008. "Is the impact of managed care on hospital prices decreasing?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 362-376, March.
    13. Laurence C. Baker & Martin L. Brown, 1999. "Managed Care, Consolidation Among Health Care Providers, and Health Care: Evidence from Mammography," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(2), pages 351-374, Summer.
    14. Robert Town & Douglas Wholey & Roger Feldman & Lawton R. Burns, 2005. "Did the HMO Revolution Cause Hospital Consolidation?," NBER Working Papers 11087, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Gaynor, Martin & Anderson, Gerard F., 1995. "Uncertain demand, the structure of hospital costs, and the cost of empty hospital beds," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 291-317, August.
    16. Leemore S. Dafny, 2005. "Estimation and Identification of Merger Effects: An Application to Hospital Mergers," NBER Working Papers 11673, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Dranove, David & Shanley, Mark & White, William D, 1993. "Price and Concentration in Hospital Markets: The Switch from Patient-Driven to Payer-Driven Competition," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(1), pages 179-204, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Gaynor, Martin & Town, Robert J., 2011. "Competition in Health Care Markets," Handbook of Health Economics, in: Mark V. Pauly & Thomas G. Mcguire & Pedro P. Barros (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 499-637, Elsevier.
    2. Anne‐Fleur Roos & Ramsis R. Croes & Victoria Shestalova & Marco Varkevisser & Frederik T. Schut, 2019. "Price effects of a hospital merger: Heterogeneity across health insurers, hospital products, and hospital locations," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(9), pages 1130-1145, September.
    3. Laurence C. Baker & M. Kate Bundorf & Anne Royalty, 2016. "Measuring Physician Practice Competition Using Medicare Data," NBER Chapters, in: Measuring and Modeling Health Care Costs, pages 351-377, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Gaynor, Martin & Town, Robert J., 2011. "Competition in Health Care Markets," Handbook of Health Economics, in: Mark V. Pauly & Thomas G. Mcguire & Pedro P. Barros (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 499-637, Elsevier.
    2. Dranove, David & Lindrooth, Richard & White, William D. & Zwanziger, Jack, 2008. "Is the impact of managed care on hospital prices decreasing?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 362-376, March.
    3. Pan, Jay & Qin, Xuezheng & Li, Qian & Messina, Joseph P. & Delamater, Paul L., 2015. "Does hospital competition improve health care delivery in China?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 179-199.
    4. Martin Gaynor, "undated". "What Do We Know About Competition and Quality in Health Care Markets?," GSIA Working Papers 2006-E62, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
    5. Berden, Carolien & Croes, R. & Kemp, R. & Mikkers, Misja & van der Noll, Rob & Shestalova, V. & Svitak, Jan, 2019. "Hospital Competition in the Netherlands : An Empirical Investigation," Other publications TiSEM 5302ab6a-9099-4b5d-9874-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    6. Gaynor, Martin & Vogt, William B., 2000. "Antitrust and competition in health care markets," Handbook of Health Economics, in: A. J. Culyer & J. P. Newhouse (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 27, pages 1405-1487, Elsevier.
    7. Westra, Daan & Angeli, Federica & Carree, Martin & Ruwaard, Dirk, 2017. "Understanding competition between healthcare providers: Introducing an intermediary inter-organizational perspective," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(2), pages 149-157.
    8. Suhui Li & Avi Dor, 2013. "How Do Hospitals Respond to Market Entry? Evidence from A Deregulated Market for Cardiac Revascularization," NBER Working Papers 18926, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. R. Halbersma & M. Mikkers & E. Motchenkova & I. Seinen, 2011. "Market structure and hospital–insurer bargaining in the Netherlands," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 12(6), pages 589-603, December.
    10. Janet Currie & Mehdi Farsi & W. Bentley Macleod, 2005. "Cut to the Bone? Hospital Takeovers and Nurse Employment Contracts," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 58(3), pages 471-493, April.
    11. Huckman, Robert S., 2006. "Hospital integration and vertical consolidation: An analysis of acquisitions in New York State," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 58-80, January.
    12. Melnick, Glenn & Keeler, Emmett, 2007. "The effects of multi-hospital systems on hospital prices," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 400-413, March.
    13. Abe Dunn & Adam Hale Shapiro, 2014. "Do Physicians Possess Market Power?," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(1), pages 159-193.
    14. Cory S. Capps & Dennis W. Carlton & Guy David, 2020. "Antitrust Treatment Of Nonprofits: Should Hospitals Receive Special Care?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 58(3), pages 1183-1199, July.
    15. Abe Dunn & Adam Hale Shapiro, 2018. "Physician Competition and the Provision of Care: Evidence from Heart Attacks," American Journal of Health Economics, MIT Press, vol. 4(2), pages 226-261, Spring.
    16. Martin Gaynor & Deborah Haas-Wilson, 1999. "Change, Consolidation, and Competition in Health Care Markets," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 141-164, Winter.
    17. Zack Cooper & Stephen Gibbons & Simon Jones & Alistair McGuire, 2011. "Does Hospital Competition Save Lives? Evidence From The English NHS Patient Choice Reforms," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(554), pages 228-260, August.
    18. Abe Dunn & Adam Hale Shapiro, 2011. "Physician Market Power and Medical-Care Expenditures," BEA Working Papers 0078, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
    19. Susan Feng Lu & Konstantinos Serfes & Gerard Wedig & Bingxiao Wu, 2021. "Does Competition Improve Service Quality? The Case of Nursing Homes Where Public and Private Payers Coexist," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 67(10), pages 6493-6512, October.
    20. Paolo Berta & Gianmaria Martini & Francesco Moscone & Giorgio Vittadini, 2016. "The association between asymmetric information, hospital competition and quality of healthcare: evidence from Italy," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 179(4), pages 907-926, October.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15134. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: the person in charge (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.