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Life (evaluation), HIV/AIDS, and Death in Africa

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  • Angus Deaton
  • Jane Fortson
  • Robert Tortora

Abstract

We use data from the Gallup World Poll and from the Demographic and Health Surveys to investigate how subjective wellbeing (SWB) is affected by mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, including mortality from HIV/AIDS. The Gallup data provide direct evidence on Africans' own emotional and evaluative responses to high levels of infection and of mortality. By comparing the effect of mortality on SWB with the effect of income on SWB, we can attach monetary values to mortality to illuminate the often controversial question of how to value life in Africa. Large fractions of the respondents in the World Poll report the mortality of an immediate family member in the last twelve months, with malaria typically more important than AIDS, and deaths of women in childbirth more important than deaths from AIDS in many countries. A life evaluation measure (Cantril's ladder of life) is relatively insensitive to the deaths of immediate family, which suggests a low value of life. There are much larger effects on experiential measures, such as sadness and depression, which suggest much larger values of life. It is not clear whether either of these results is correct, yet our results demonstrate that experiential and evaluative measures are not the same thing, and that they cannot be used interchangeably as measures of "happiness" in welfare economics.

Suggested Citation

  • Angus Deaton & Jane Fortson & Robert Tortora, 2009. "Life (evaluation), HIV/AIDS, and Death in Africa," NBER Working Papers 14637, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14637
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    Cited by:

    1. de Araujo, Pedro & Murray, James, 2010. "A Life Insurance Deterrent to Risky Behavior in Africa," MPRA Paper 22675, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Gianmarco León & Edward Miguel, 2013. "Transportation choices and the value of statistical life," Economics Working Papers 1389, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior
    • J17 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Value of Life; Foregone Income
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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