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After Johnny Came Marching Home: The Political Economy of Veterans' Benefits in the Nineteenth Century

Author

Listed:
  • Sung Won Kang
  • Hugh Rockoff

Abstract

This paper explores new estimates of the number of veterans and the value of veterans' benefits -- both cash benefits and land grants -- from the Revolution to 1900. Benefits, it turns out, varied substantially from war to war. The veterans of the War of 1812, in particular, received a smaller amount of benefits than did the veterans of the other nineteenth century wars. A number of factors appear to account for the differences across wars. Some are familiar from studies of other government programs: the previous history of veterans' benefits, the wealth of the United States, the number of veterans relative to the population, and the lobbying efforts of lawyers and other agents employed by veterans. Some are less familiar. There were several occasions, for example, when public attitudes toward the war appeared to influence the amount of benefits. Perhaps the most important factor, however, was the state of the federal treasury. When the federal government ran a surplus, veterans were likely to receive additional benefits; when it ran a deficit, veterans' hopes for additional benefits went unfilled. Veterans' benefits were, to use the terms a bit freely, more like a luxury than a necessity.

Suggested Citation

  • Sung Won Kang & Hugh Rockoff, 2007. "After Johnny Came Marching Home: The Political Economy of Veterans' Benefits in the Nineteenth Century," NBER Working Papers 13223, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13223
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    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13223.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Farley Grubb, 2005. "The Net Asset Position of the U.S. National Government, 1784-1802: Hamilton's Blessing or the Spoils of War?," NBER Working Papers 11868, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. John D. Black & Charles D. Hyson, 1944. "Postwar Soldier Settlement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(1), pages 1-35.
    3. Dora L. Costa, 1995. "Pensions and Retirement: Evidence from Union Army Veterans," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 297-319.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cain, Louis & Hong, Sok Chul, 2009. "Survival in 19th century cities: The larger the city, the smaller your chances," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 450-463, October.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • N11 - Economic History - - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics; Industrial Structure; Growth; Fluctuations - - - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913
    • N4 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation

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