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Conditional Betas

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  • Tano Santos
  • Pietro Veronesi

Abstract

Empirical evidence shows that conditional market betas vary substantially over time. Yet, little is known about the source of this variation, either theoretically or empirically. Within a general equilibrium model with multiple assets and a time varying aggregate equity premium, we show that conditional betas depend on (a) the level of the aggregate premium itself; (b) the level of the firm's expected dividend growth; and (c) the firm's fundamental risk, that is, the one pertaining to the covariation of the firm's cash-flows with the aggregate economy. Especially when fundamental risk (c) is strong, the model predicts that market betas should display a large time variation, that their cross-sectional dispersion should be negatively related to the aggregate premium, and that investments in physical capital should be positively related to changes in betas. These predictions find considerable support in the data.

Suggested Citation

  • Tano Santos & Pietro Veronesi, 2004. "Conditional Betas," NBER Working Papers 10413, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:10413 Note: AP
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    Cited by:

    1. Mariano M. Croce & Martin Lettau & Sydney C. Ludvigson, 2015. "Investor Information, Long-Run Risk, and the Term Structure of Equity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 28(3), pages 706-742.
    2. Lieven Baele & Koen Inghelbrecht, 2005. "Structural versus Temporary Drivers of Country and Industry Risk," International Finance 0511005, EconWPA.
    3. Ammann, Manuel & Kind, Axel & Seiz, Ralf, 2010. "What drives the performance of convertible-bond funds?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2600-2613, November.
    4. Martin Lettau & Jessica A. Wachter, 2007. "Why Is Long-Horizon Equity Less Risky? A Duration-Based Explanation of the Value Premium," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 55-92, February.
    5. Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Westerlund, Joakim, 2014. "Does cash flow predict returns?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 230-236.
    6. Carmine Trecroci, 2012. "Uncertainty and the Dynamics of Multifactor Loadings and Pricing Errors," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 32(3), pages 2453-2463.
    7. Baele, Lieven & Inghelbrecht, Koen, 2009. "Time-varying Integration and International diversification strategies," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 368-387, June.
    8. Baele, Lieven & Londono, Juan M., 2013. "Understanding industry betas," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 30-51.
    9. Tano Santos & Pietro Veronesi, 2005. "Cash-Flow Risk, Discount Risk, and the Value Premium," NBER Working Papers 11816, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Ang, Andrew & Chen, Joseph, 2007. "CAPM over the long run: 1926-2001," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 1-40, January.
    11. Cosemans, M. & Frehen, R.G.P. & Schotman, P.C. & Bauer, R.M.M.J., 2009. "Efficient Estimation of Firm-Specific Betas and its Benefits for Asset Pricing Tests and Portfolio Choice," MPRA Paper 23557, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Salotti, Simone & Trecroci, Carmine, 2014. "Multifactor risk loadings and abnormal returns under uncertainty and learning," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 393-404.
    13. Adrian, Tobias & Franzoni, Francesco, 2009. "Learning about beta: Time-varying factor loadings, expected returns, and the conditional CAPM," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 537-556, September.
    14. Fernando D. Chague, 2013. "Conditional Betas and Investor Uncertainty," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2013_04, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
    15. Londono Yarce, J.M., 2011. "Essays on asset pricing," Other publications TiSEM 744a2ac5-7ada-4fa8-a7aa-e, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    16. Ludvigson, Sydney C., 2013. "Advances in Consumption-Based Asset Pricing: Empirical Tests," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier.

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    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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