IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

The Federal Attack on Labor Market Discrimination: The Mouse that Roared?

  • Charles Brown

The purpose of this paper is to review available evidence on the impact of federal equal employment opportunity programs. While Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Executive Order 11246 have been in effect for over 15 years, the lag in data collection and evaluation means that little can be said regarding the last few years' experience. In particular, evidence on the impact of recent administrative changes in the agencies responsible for enforcement is unavailable. In general, time series studies find significant improvements in the relative labor market position of blacks compared with whites since 1965. While several arguments have been advanced that these gains are illusory, the most plausible interpretation is that much of the apparent progress is real. Cross-sectional studies of the impacts of the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (which enforces the nondiscrimination and affirmative action requirements of the Executive Order) and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (which enforces Title VII) have been much less conclusive. Half of the major studies of the OFCCP find that the program had the intended effects on the relative position of blacks -- or at least black males. Unfortunately, variations in conclusions among studies are not readily explained, even after a careful look at the competing data and methods. Equally disturbing is the inability of studies producing positive results to associate such impacts with the "levers" by which OFCCP might exert influence. Studies of EEOC impacts are more vulnerable to problems of identifying the appropriate control group, since Title VII covers contractor and noncontractor firms. Apart from evidence that relative black employment grew considerably faster in firms which must report to EEOC (firms with over 15 employees are subject to Title VII, but only those with 100 or more must report to EEOC), available studies have not produced consistent evidence of EEOC impact. Besides the lack of strong cross-sectional support for the time series conclusions, three puzzles emerge: (1) What caused the decline in black male labor force participation which began about the same time as the federal antidiscrimination effort? (2) Why did black females advance more rapidly than black males since the federal effort began? (3) Why did advantaged blacks advance more rapidly than less advantaged blacks?

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w0669.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 0669.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: May 1981
Date of revision:
Publication status: published as Brown, Charles. "The Federal Attack on Labor Market Discrimination: The Mouse that Roared?" Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 5 (1982), pp. 33-68.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:0669
Note: LS
Contact details of provider: Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
Phone: 617-868-3900
Web page: http://www.nber.org
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Orley Ashenfelter & James J. Heckman, 1974. "Measuring the Effect of an Anti-Discrimination Program," NBER Working Papers 0050, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Anderson, Bernard E & Wallace, Phyllis A, 1975. "Public Policy and Black Economic Progress: A Review of the Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(2), pages 47-52, May.
  3. James J. Heckman & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 1976. "Does the contract compliance program work? An analysis of Chicago data," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(4), pages 544-564, July.
  4. Gregory J. Ahart, 1976. "A process evaluation of the contract compliance program in nonconstruction industry," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 29(4), pages 565-571, July.
  5. Lazear, Edward, 1979. "The Narrowing of Black-White Wage Differentials Is Illusory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(4), pages 553-64, September.
  6. Smith, James P, 1978. "The Improving Economic Status of Black Americans," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 171-78, May.
  7. Richard Butler & James J. Heckman, 1977. "The Government's Impact on the Labor Market Status of Black Americans: A Critical Review," NBER Working Papers 0183, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:0669. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.