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Formation of inflation expectations in turbulent times. Recent evidence from the European Survey of Professional Forecasters

Author

Listed:
  • Tomasz Łyziak

    (Narodowy Bank Polski)

  • Maritta Paloviita

    (Bank of Finland)

Abstract

This paper analyses formation of inflation expectations in the euro area. At the beginning we analyse forecast accuracy of ECB inflation projections relative to private sector forecasts. Then, using the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters, we estimate a general model integrating two theoretical concepts, i.e. the hybrid model of expectations, including rational and static expectations, and the sticky-information (epidemiological) model. Among determinants of inflation expectations we consider – except backward-looking factors – rational expectations assumption and the effects of the ECB inflation projections. We examine whether ECB inflation projections are still important in expectations’ formation once the impact of forwardlookingness of economic agents has been taken into account. We also assess the consistency of implicit (perceived) inflation targets with the ECB inflation target. Our analysis indicates that recent turbulent times have contributed to changes in expectations’ formation in the euro area, as the importance of backward-looking mechanisms has decreased and the importance of the perceived inflation target has increased. We also find that the perceived inflation target has remained broadly consistent with the official ECB inflation target in the medium-term. However, the downward trend of the perceived target signals some risks of de-anchoring of inflation expectations. The importance of ECB inflation projections for mediumterm private sector inflation expectations has increased over time, but the magnitude of this effect is rather small. However, SPF inflation forecasts remain consistent with the ECB communication, being ether close to ECB projections or between ECB projections and the inflation target.

Suggested Citation

  • Tomasz Łyziak & Maritta Paloviita, 2017. "Formation of inflation expectations in turbulent times. Recent evidence from the European Survey of Professional Forecasters," NBP Working Papers 261, Narodowy Bank Polski, Economic Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbp:nbpmis:261
    Note: We would like to thank participants of the session on “Inflation expectations in the low inflation environment” during the 10th International Conference on Computational and Financial Econometrics in Seville (9 December 2016) for their useful comments. We are also grateful for constructive comments received in XXXIX Annual Meeting of the Finnish Economic Association in Jyväskylä (February 2017).
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Paul Hubert, 2015. "Do Central Bank Forecasts Influence Private Agents? Forecasting Performance versus Signals," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 47(4), pages 771-789, June.
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    3. David H. Romer & Christina D. Romer, 2000. "Federal Reserve Information and the Behavior of Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(3), pages 429-457, June.
    4. Joshua Abel & Robert Rich & Joseph Song & Joseph Tracy, 2016. "The Measurement and Behavior of Uncertainty: Evidence from the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(3), pages 533-550, April.
    5. N. Gregory Mankiw & Ricardo Reis, 2002. "Sticky Information versus Sticky Prices: A Proposal to Replace the New Keynesian Phillips Curve," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(4), pages 1295-1328.
    6. Masazumi Hattori & Steven Kong & Frank Packer & Toshitaka Sekine, 2016. "The effects of a central bank's inflation forecasts on private sector forecasts: Recent evidence from Japan," BIS Working Papers 585, Bank for International Settlements.
    7. Paul Hubert, 2015. "The Influence and Policy Signalling Role of FOMC Forecasts," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 77(5), pages 655-680, October.
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    12. Łyziak, Tomasz & Paloviita, Maritta, 2017. "Anchoring of inflation expectations in the euro area: Recent evidence based on survey data," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 52-73.
    13. Tomasz Łyziak, 2013. "Formation of Inflation Expectations by Different Economic Agents," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(6), pages 5-33, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Łyziak, Tomasz & Paloviita, Maritta, 2017. "Formation of inflation expectations in turbulent times : Can ECB manage inflation expectations of professional forecasters?," Research Discussion Papers 13/2017, Bank of Finland.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Formation of inflation expectations; survey data; euro area; financial crisis; low inflation;

    JEL classification:

    • D84 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Expectations; Speculations
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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