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A View of Damped Trend as Incorporating a Tracking Signal into a State Space Model


  • Ralph D. Snyder


  • Anne B. Koehler


Damped trend exponential smoothing has previously been established as an important forecasting method. Here, it is shown to have close links to simple exponential smoothing with a smoothed error tracking signal. A special case of damped trend exponential smoothing emerges from our analysis, one that is more parsimonious because it effectively relies on one less parameter. This special case is compared with its traditional counterpart in an application to the annual data from the M3 competition and is shown to be quite competitive.

Suggested Citation

  • Ralph D. Snyder & Anne B. Koehler, 2008. "A View of Damped Trend as Incorporating a Tracking Signal into a State Space Model," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 7/08, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
  • Handle: RePEc:msh:ebswps:2008-7

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Makridakis, Spyros & Hibon, Michele, 2000. "The M3-Competition: results, conclusions and implications," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 451-476.
    2. Hyndman, Rob J. & Koehler, Anne B. & Snyder, Ralph D. & Grose, Simone, 2002. "A state space framework for automatic forecasting using exponential smoothing methods," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 439-454.
    3. Gardner, Everette Jr., 2006. "Exponential smoothing: The state of the art--Part II," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 637-666.
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    Cited by:

    1. Gorr, Wilpen L. & Schneider, Matthew J., 2013. "Large-change forecast accuracy: Reanalysis of M3-Competition data using receiver operating characteristic analysis," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 274-281.

    More about this item


    Exponential smoothing; monitoring forecasts; structural change; adjusting forecasts; state space models; damped trend;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C44 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Operations Research; Statistical Decision Theory
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods

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