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Relative Assistance to Agriculture and Manufacturing since Federation

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  • Peter Lloyd
  • Peter Lloyd

Abstract

The general level of assistance which has gone to farmers and other agricultural producers has been a major political issue since the beginning of Federation in Australia. From 1901 butter producers received protection from imports in the form of a prohibition of imports of margarine and butter substitutes “unless coloured and branded as prescribed” and sugar producers received a bounty on cane grown and harvested by white labour from 1902. New forms of assistance to particular agricultural producers came in every succeeding decade. From the 1920s Australian farmers sought increased assistance to offset the high levels of assistance given to manufacturers of import-competing products from the Australian Tariff. In this paper we seek to quantify the levels of assistance received by agricultural producers of the major crops and products in Australia and the average for the whole sector from the time of Federation, and then to compare this with the level of assistance provided to the Manufacturing sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Peter Lloyd & Peter Lloyd, 2013. "Relative Assistance to Agriculture and Manufacturing since Federation," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1173, The University of Melbourne.
  • Handle: RePEc:mlb:wpaper:1173
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kym Anderson & Peter Lloyd & Donald Maclaren, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Australia Since World War II," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(263), pages 461-482, December.
    2. S.F. Harris, 1964. "Some Measures Of Levels Of Protection In Australia'S Rural Industries," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 8(2), pages 124-144, December.
    3. Kym Anderson & William A. Masters, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2607.
    4. Kym Anderson, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Versus Nonagricultural Producer Incentives," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 55-74, September.
    5. Anderson, Kym & Lattimore, Ralph G. & Lloyd, Peter J. & MacLaren, Donald, 2007. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Australia and New Zealand," 2007 Conference (51st), February 13-16, 2007, Queenstown, New Zealand 10407, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    6. Peter G. Warr, 1978. "The Case Against Tariff Compensation," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 22(2-3), pages 85-98, 08-12.
    7. Anderson, Kym, 2009. "Five Decades of Distortions to Agricultural Incentives," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper Series 48742, World Bank.
    8. Stuart Harris, 1975. "Tariff Compensation: Sufficient Justification For Assistance To Australian Agriculture?," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 19(3), pages 131-145, December.
    9. Kym Anderson & Will Martin, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Asia," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2611, November.
    10. Lloyd, Peter J., 1975. "Tariff Compensation: An Undesirable Policy," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 19(3), pages 1-8, December.
    11. Anderson, Kym & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Eastern Europe and Central Asia," Agricultural Distortions Working Paper Series 48624, World Bank.
    12. Peter J. Lloyd, 1975. "Tariff Compensation: An Undesirable Policy," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 19(3), pages 146-153, December.
    13. Kym Anderson, 2009. "Distortions to Agricultural Incentives : A Global Perspective, 1955-2007," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 9436.
    14. Harris, S.F., 1964. "Some Measures Of Levels Of Protection In Australia'S Rural Industries," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 8(2), pages 1-21, December.
    15. Peter Lloyd, 2008. "100 Years Of Tariff Protection In Australia," Australian Economic History Review, Economic History Society of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 48(2), pages 99-145, July.
    16. Harris, Stuart, 1975. "Tariff Compensation: Sufficient Justification For Assistance To Australian Agriculture?," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 19(3), pages 1-15, December.
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